# Free-electron laser growing modes and their bandwidths

@article{Webb2011FreeelectronLG, title={Free-electron laser growing modes and their bandwidths}, author={Stephen D. Webb and Gang Wang and Vladimir N. Litvinenko}, journal={Physical Review Special Topics-accelerators and Beams}, year={2011}, volume={15}, pages={080701} }

Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory(Dated: May 3, 2011)Free-electron lasers play an increasing role in science, from generating unique femtosecond X-ray pulses for single short recording of the protein structures to amplifying feeble interactions inadvanced cooling systems for high-energy hadron colliders. While modern Free-electron laser codescan describe their ampliﬁcation mechanism, a deep analytical understanding of the mechanism isof extreme importance for a…

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