Free Amino Acid Content in Standard Infant Formulas: Comparison with Human Milk

  title={Free Amino Acid Content in Standard Infant Formulas: Comparison with Human Milk},
  author={Carlo V. Agostoni and Brunella Carratù and Concetta Boniglia and Enrica Riva and Elisabetta Sanzini},
  journal={Journal of the American College of Nutrition},
  pages={434 - 438}
Objective: To compare the concentration of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and free amino acids (FAA) in powdered and liquid commercial formulas with that in human milk. Methods: The non-protein nitrogen and FAAs in pooled breast milk was compared with that in 11 protein-modified starting infant formulas (seven powdered, four liquid whey-predominant formulas) and one powdered soy-formula. Human milk was collected at the end of each feeding (hindmilk) over 24 hours in a group of 40 healthy lactating… 

Free Amino Acids in Full-Term and Pre-Term Human Milk and Infant Formula

The concentration of FAA is high in human colostral milk and decreases through the transitional and mature milk stages, and is higher in all human milks than in infant formulas.

Comparative Free Amino Acid Profiles of Human Milk and Some Infant Formulas Sold in Europe

  • G. Sarwar
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition
  • 2001
Although the authors did not determine FAA in milk-based infant formulas, the value for total FAA in cows’ milk was also comparable to the FAA data for infant formulas reported by Agostoni et al.

Free amino acid content in infant formulas

It was found that the amount and number of FAAs varied significantly across formula types: for CMF, total FAAs ranged from 523‐864 μmol/L, with taurine being the most ...

Analysis of Free Amino Acids and Protein Contents of Mature Human Milk from Turkish Mothers

Abstract This study was designed to evaluate free amino acid (FAA) composition and total protein in mature human milk from Turkish mothers. Free amino acid concentrations in mature human milk were

Free Glutamine and Glutamic Acid Increase in Human Milk Through a Three-Month Lactation Period

The increasing intake of glutamic acid and glutamine could benefit breast-fed infants with molecules that are likely to protect the enteral mucosa and act as neurotransmitters and as a source of nitrogen.

Composition of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and goat milk-based infant and follow-on formulae

Goat milk has a very different profile of the non-protein nitrogen fraction to cow milk, with several constituents such as nucleotides at concentrations approaching those in human breast milk.

Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations With Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

The hypothesis that a high content of glutamic acid and glutamine in breast milk could downregulate milk intake to a degree affecting early growth could not be confirmed and maternal factors associated with the level of these FAA in milk and the potential effect on the infant should be investigated further.

Amino acid composition determined using multiple hydrolysis times for three goat milk formulations

Goat milk infant formula has amino acids in amounts similar to human milk reference values, when expressed on a per-energy basis, according to the least-squares non-linear regression model.

α-Lactalbumin-rich infant formula fed to healthy term infants in a multicenter study: plasma essential amino acids and gastrointestinal tolerance

The study demonstrated that feeding a higher quality, lower protein concentration formula (α-lactalbumin-enriched) met all essential amino acid and protein requirements of infants.



Non‐Protein Nitrogen and True Protein in Infant Formulas

Levels of NPN and urea N in formulas were highly dependent on the type of whey used, with ion‐exchange whey being highest, followed by electrodialyzed and ultrafiltered whey, respectively.

Protein Content of Infant Formula—How Much and from What Age?

Whether a protein concentration of 15 g/1 in formulas is an “optimal” level of protein, i.e. adequate for the amino acid requirement of infants (including some safety margin) while not associated with any negative consequences caused by potentially excessive levels of some amino acids and metabolites, has recently been a subject of discussion.

Protein and Non-Protein Nitrogen in Human Milk

Non-Immunoglobulins Compounds in Human Milk - Candidates for Prophylaxis Against Infantile Infections and Non-Protein Nitrogen Components in Human milk: Biochemistry and Potential Functional Role.

Effect of protein intake on protein and nitrogen composition of breast milk.

The effect of a low and a high protein diet (approximately 8 and 20% energy from protein, respectively) on the contents of different nitrogen-containing substances in breast milk was studied on three

Properties of human milk and their relationship with maternal nutrition.

Taurine supplementation prevents hyperaminoacidemia in growing term infants fed high‐protein cow's milk formula

It is indicated that taurine supplementation to a high protein formula lowers BUN levels and the plasma and urine amino acid concentrations by some yet unknown mechanism to concentrations similar to those found in breast‐fed infants with a much lower protein intake.

Free amino acids in preterm and term milk from mothers delivering appropriate- or small-for-gestational-age infants.

The ratio of essential to nonessential amino acids was higher in colostrum than in mature milk although the total amino acid level of mature milk was double that of the colostrums.


The nutritional and immunological significance of the marked differences with respect to the nitrogen and protein compositions of human milk and cow's milk should not be underestimated, but need further elucidation.

The role of taurine in infant nutrition.

Taurine appears to have a role in infants, children, and even adults receiving most of their calories from TPN solutions in the prevention of granulation of the retina and electroencephalographic changes and may serve to minimize the brain phospholipid fatty acid composition differences between formula-fed and human milk-fed infants.