Frederick Sanger CBE CH OM. 13 August 1918 — 19 November 2013

  title={Frederick Sanger CBE CH OM. 13 August 1918 — 19 November 2013},
  author={George G. Brownlee},
  journal={Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society},
  pages={437 - 466}
  • G. Brownlee
  • Published 1 December 2015
  • Biology
  • Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society
Frederick Sanger—always known as Fred—was one of the most influential scientists of the twentieth century. A committed molecular biologist, he spent all his academic life in Cambridge devising methods for sequencing proteins and nucleic acids. He twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry—once in 1958 for protein sequencing and then again in 1980 for sequencing nucleic acids. He is the only scientist to have achieved this distinction. The impact of his work was enormous. He opened up the field of… 
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The nucleotide sequences of tyrosine transfer RNAs of Escherichia coli.
The tyrosine tRNAs specified by the E. coli amber suppressor gene su:,, and the wild type non-suppressing allele su,, were selectively labelled with 32P in E. coli infected with transducing phage p80
The frequencies of certain sequences of nucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acid.
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The first sequence. Fred Sanger and insulin.
His own retrospective, written after he retired, is a delightful prefatory chapter called “Sequences, sequences, and sequences”, in which he describes the paths that led to the successful methods.
A different genetic code in human mitochondria
Comparison of the human mitochrondrial DNA sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene and the sequence of the corresponding beef heart protein shows that UGA is used as a tryptophan codon and
Different pattern of codon recognition by mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs.
Analysis of an almost complete mammalian mitochondrial DNA sequence has identified 23 possible tRNA genes and we speculate here that these are sufficient to translate all the codons of the
Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene
The complete, primary chemical structure of a viral genome has now been established and biological properties, such as ribosome binding and codon interactions can now be discussed on a molecular basis.