Frederick Sanger CBE CH OM. 13 August 1918 — 19 November 2013

  title={Frederick Sanger CBE CH OM. 13 August 1918 — 19 November 2013},
  author={George G. Brownlee},
  journal={Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society},
  pages={437 - 466}
  • G. Brownlee
  • Published 2015
  • Biology
  • Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society
Frederick Sanger—always known as Fred—was one of the most influential scientists of the twentieth century. A committed molecular biologist, he spent all his academic life in Cambridge devising methods for sequencing proteins and nucleic acids. He twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry—once in 1958 for protein sequencing and then again in 1980 for sequencing nucleic acids. He is the only scientist to have achieved this distinction. The impact of his work was enormous. He opened up the field of… Expand
3 Citations
Schrödinger's code-script: not a genetic cipher but a code of development.
  • A. Walsby, M. Hodge
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences
  • 2017
It is argued that the modern equivalent of Schrödinger's code-script is a rule-code of organismal development based largely on the synthesis, folding, properties and interactions of numerous proteins, each performing a specific task. Expand
The Nobel Prize Factory
Nobel Prize Laureate Richard Henderson introduces structural biology and electron cryo-microscopy, and talks about the successful journey of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology.


Complete sequence of bovine mitochondrial DNA. Conserved features of the mammalian mitochondrial genome.
The bovine 12 S and 16 S Ribosomal RNA genes, when compared with those from human mitochondrial DNA, show conserved features that are consistent with proposed secondary structure models for the ribosomal RNAs. Expand
Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage G4 DNA
There is less sequence similarity between the untranslated intergenic regions of G4 and ΦX174, but despite this the sequences of the J/F, F/G and H/A untrans translated spaces in both genomes have similar sized hairpin loops, which may be related to their function. Expand
Fractionation and sequences of the large pyrimidine oligonucleotides from bacteriophage fd DNA.
  • V. Ling
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of molecular biology
  • 1972
The fractionation of 32P-labelled pyrimidine oligonucleotides from depurinated fd DNA on a two-dimensional thin-layer system is described and should prove useful in a general procedure for sequencing DNA. Expand
The nucleotide sequences of tyrosine transfer RNAs of Escherichia coli.
The tyrosine tRNAs specified by the E. coli amber suppressor gene su:,, and the wild type non-suppressing allele su,, were selectively labelled with 32P in E. coli infected with transducing phage p80Expand
Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing.
An approach to DNA sequencing using chain-terminating inhibitors (Sanger et al., 1977) combined with cloning of small fragments of DNA in a single-stranded DNA bacteriophage is described, determining the 2771-nucleotide sequence of the largest MboI restriction enzyme fragment from human mitochondrial DNA. Expand
The frequencies of certain sequences of nucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acid.
Lowry, 0. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L. & Randall, R. J. (1951). J. biol. Chem. 193, 265. Northcote. D. H. (1954). Biochem. J. 58, 353. Northcote, D. H., Goulding, K. J. & Home, R. W. (1958).Expand
The first sequence. Fred Sanger and insulin.
His own retrospective, written after he retired, is a delightful prefatory chapter called “Sequences, sequences, and sequences”, in which he describes the paths that led to the successful methods. Expand
A different genetic code in human mitochondria
Comparison of the human mitochrondrial DNA sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene and the sequence of the corresponding beef heart protein shows that UGA is used as a tryptophan codon andExpand
Different pattern of codon recognition by mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs.
Analysis of an almost complete mammalian mitochondrial DNA sequence has identified 23 possible tRNA genes and we speculate here that these are sufficient to translate all the codons of theExpand
The nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage φX174
The complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA of bacteriophage φX174 has been determined and the amino acid sequences of the ten proteins for which the DNA codes have also been deduced. Expand