Frank Miller: Inventor of the One-Time Pad

  title={Frank Miller: Inventor of the One-Time Pad},
  author={Steven M. Bellovin},
  pages={203 - 222}
Abstract The invention of the one-time pad is generally credited to Gilbert S. Vernam and Joseph O. Mauborgne. We show that it was invented about 35 years earlier by a Sacramento banker named Frank Miller. We identify which Frank Miller it was, and speculate on what might have led him to his idea. We also discuss whether or not Mauborgne might have known of Miller's work, especially via his colleague Parker Hitt. 

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Cipher Printing Telegraph Systems For Secret Wire and Radio Telegraphic Communications

  • G. S. Vernam
  • Computer Science
    Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers
  • 1926
A printing telegraph cipher system devetoped during the World War for the use of the Signal Corps, U. S. Army is described, so designed that the messages are in secret form from the time they leave the sender until they are deciphered automatically at the office of the addressee.

Private communication


Defenders of the Union

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  • URL Fargo_red.pdf
  • 1963

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  • Theosophical Publishing House,
  • 1972

Theosophical Publishing House, Wheaton, IL. ISBN 9780835602105. Note: this is a biography of the founder of a religious movement, issued by the movement’s own publishing

  • Hammer on the Mountain: Life of Henry Steel Olcott
  • 1972