Considering the increasing age of individuals affected with heart failure (HF), a specific approach to their treatment is required, with more attention paid to geriatric conditions such as poor mobility, multiple disabilities, and cognitive impairment. Frailty is a distinct biological syndrome reflecting decreased physiologic reserve and resistance to stressors. It was shown to occur frequently in patients with heart failure, with the prevalence ranging from 15 to 74 %, depending on the studied population and the method of assessment. We reviewed literature data on the influence of frailty, skeletal abnormalities, comorbidities and geriatric condition on diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes in elderly patients with HF. Identification of frailty in patients with HF is important from the clinical point of view, as this condition exerts unfavorable effects on the course of heart failure. Frailty contributes to a higher frequency of visits to emergency departments, hospitalizations, and mortality in patients with HF. Exercise may improve mobility, and nursing support can be implemented to help the patients adhere to medications. Therefore, frail patients should be diagnosed and treated according to available guidelines, and successfully educated about their condition.

DOI: 10.1007/s11897-014-0198-4
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@article{Uchmanowicz2014FrailtyIH, title={Frailty in heart failure.}, author={Izabella Uchmanowicz and Maria Łoboz-Rudnicka and Przemysław Szeląg and Beata Katarzyna Jankowska-Polanska and Krystyna Łoboz-Grudzień}, journal={Current heart failure reports}, year={2014}, volume={11 3}, pages={266-73} }