Fragmentation of Gravitationally Unstable Gaseous Protoplanetary Disks with Radiative Transfer

@article{Mayer2007FragmentationOG,
  title={Fragmentation of Gravitationally Unstable Gaseous Protoplanetary Disks with Radiative Transfer},
  author={Lucio Mayer and Graeme Lufkin and Thomas R. Quinn and James Wadsley},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2007},
  volume={661}
}
We report on the results of the first 3D SPH simulations of gravitationally unstable protoplanetary disks with radiative transfer. We adopt a flux-limited diffusion scheme justified by the high opacity of most of the disk. The optically thin surface of the disk cools as a blackbody. We find that gravitationally bound clumps with masses close to a Jupiter mass can arise. Fragmentation appears to be driven by vertical convective-like motions capable of transporting the heat from the disk midplane… 

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