SEPP1 and FoxM1 regulate oxidative stress-mediated radiation response
The transcription factor FoxM1 is over-expressed in most human malignancies. Although it is evident that FoxM1 has critical functions in tumour development and progression, the mechanisms by which FoxM1 participates in those processes are not understood. Here, we describe an essential role of FoxM1 in the regulation of oxidative stress that contributes to malignant transformation and tumour cell survival. We identify a negative feedback loop involving FoxM1 that regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in proliferating cells. We show that induction of FoxM1 by oncogenic Ras requires ROS. Elevated FoxM1, in turn, downregulates ROS levels by stimulating expression of ROS scavenger genes, such as MnSOD, catalase and PRDX3. FoxM1 depletion sensitizes cells to oxidative stress and increases oncogene-induced premature senescence. Moreover, tumour cells expressing activated AKT1 are 'addicted' to FoxM1, as they require continuous presence of FoxM1 for survival. Together, our results identify FoxM1 as a key regulator of ROS in dividing cells, and provide insights into the mechanism how tumour cells use FoxM1 to control oxidative stress to escape premature senescence and apoptosis.