Fourteen years in resistance.

@article{Livermore2012FourteenYI,
  title={Fourteen years in resistance.},
  author={David Martin Livermore},
  journal={International journal of antimicrobial agents},
  year={2012},
  volume={39 4},
  pages={283-94}
}
Resistance trends have changed greatly over the 14 years (1997-2011) whilst I was Director of the UK Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory (ARMRL). Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) first rose, then fell with improved infection control, although with the decline of one major clone beginning before these improvements. Resistant pneumococci too have declined following conjugate vaccine deployment. If the situation against Gram-positive pathogens has improved… CONTINUE READING

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If the situation against Gram - positive pathogens has improved , that against Gram - negatives has worsened , with the spread of ( i ) quinolone- and cephalosporin - resistant Enterobacteriaceae , ( ii ) Acinetobacter with OXA carbapenemases , ( iii ) Enterobacteriaceae with biochemically diverse carbapenemases and ( iv ) gonococci resistant to fluoroquinolones and , latterly , cefixime .
CephalosporinsChemical structure ofCefixime
If the situation against Gram - positive pathogens has improved , that against Gram - negatives has worsened , with the spread of ( i ) quinolone- and cephalosporin - resistant Enterobacteriaceae , ( ii ) Acinetobacter with OXA carbapenemases , ( iii ) Enterobacteriaceae with biochemically diverse carbapenemases and ( iv ) gonococci resistant to fluoroquinolones and , latterly , cefixime .
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