Four types of effect modification: a classification based on directed acyclic graphs.

@article{VanderWeele2007FourTO,
  title={Four types of effect modification: a classification based on directed acyclic graphs.},
  author={Tyler J. VanderWeele and James M. Robins},
  journal={Epidemiology},
  year={2007},
  volume={18 5},
  pages={561-8}
}
It is possible to classify the types of causal relationships that can give rise to effect modification on the risk difference scale by expressing the conditional causal risk-difference as a sum of products of stratum-specific risk differences and conditional probabilities. Directed acyclic graphs clarify the causal relationships necessary for a particular variable to serve as an effect modifier for the causal risk difference involving 2 other variables. The directed acyclic graph causal… CONTINUE READING
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