Four decades of research on the Swedish large lakes Mälaren, Hjälmaren, Vättern and Vänern: the significance of monitoring and remedial measures for a sustainable society.


The large lakes of Sweden, Mälaren, Hjälmaren, Vättern and Vänern, have been subjected to water-quality monitoring for almost four decades. Physicochemical variables, plankton and benthic invertebrates have been regularly assessed. Hydrological and sediment conditions, macrophytes, fish, primary production, bacteria and attached algae have been periodically… (More)


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