Foundations of problem‐based learning: some explanatory notes

@article{Schmidt1993FoundationsOP,
  title={Foundations of problem‐based learning: some explanatory notes},
  author={Henk G. Schmidt},
  journal={Medical Education},
  year={1993},
  volume={27}
}
  • H. Schmidt
  • Published 1 September 1993
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Medical Education
Summary. The present article elaborates on cognitive effects of problem‐based learning put forward by Schmidt, De Volder, De Grave, Moust & Patel (1989) and Norman & Schmidt (1992) . Its purpose is to discuss, in some detail, the theoretical premises of this approach to learning and instruction. It is argued that problem‐based learning, above all, promotes the activation of prior knowledge and its elaboration. Evidence is reviewed demonstrating that these processes actually occur in small‐group… 
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The Pros and Cons of Problem-Based Learning from the Teacher’s Standpoint
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  • Psychology
    Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice
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This article focuses on a teacher’s evaluation of an experiment with problem-based learning (PBL) and its effects on his professional development. This case study, of a descriptive-analytical nature,
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References

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The psychological basis of problem‐based learning: a review of the evidence
  • G. Norman, H. Schmidt
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
  • 1992
TLDR
There is no evidence that PBL curricula result in any improvement in general, content-free problem-solving skills, and there are several potential advantages for students' learning claimed for problem-based learning.
Toward a Theory of Instruction
This country's most challenging writer on education presents here a distillation, for the general reader, of half a decade's research and reflection. His theme is dual: how children learn, and how
Problem‐based learning: rationale and description
TLDR
The process of problem‐based learning is described and measured against three principles of learning: activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and encoding specificity.
Development of self‐directed learning behaviors in a partially teacher‐directed problem‐based learning curriculum
Data from three sources (self‐reports of students, review of accreditation and program evaluation documents, and library circulation statistics) supported the hypothesis that students in a
Explanatory Models in the Processing of Science Text: The Role of Prior Knowledge Activation Through Small-Group Discussion
Two experiments assessed effects of activation of prior knowledge through small-group discussion. Subjects were given a description of natural phenomena and were asked to elaborate on possible
Theories of learning
The doctoral program in Educational Policy and Leadership is designed to foster the development of scholar-practitioners. It asks students not only to inquire deeply into the process of teaching and
Undergraduate Students as Tutors: Are They as Effective as Faculty in Conducting Small-Group Tutorials?.
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Students guided by student tutors performed as well as students guided by faculty tutors on end-of-course examinations, and no differences in achievement occurred.
The effect of compulsory participation of medical students in problem‐based learning
TLDR
This study compared a group of students who had chosen to be in a PBL curriculum with a group who had not, as they undertook a curriculum that contained both PBL and lecture‐based courses.
Conflict in the Classroom: Controversy And Learning
In a social studies class a teacher is presenting a lesson on the United States Congress. The students are discussing in small groups the reasons why citizens want to be representatives in Congress.
Effects of Controversy on Epistemic Curiosity, Achievement, and Attitudes
Summary Comparisons were made of the effects of controversy versus no-controversy on epistemic curiosity, achievement, and attitudes of fifth- and sixth-grade Ss. Eighty Ss were assigned to
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