• Corpus ID: 227334565

Foundations for Near-Term Quantum Natural Language Processing

  title={Foundations for Near-Term Quantum Natural Language Processing},
  author={Bob Coecke and Giovanni de Felice and Konstantinos Meichanetzidis and Alexis Toumi},
We provide conceptual and mathematical foundations for near-term quantum natural language processing (QNLP), and do so in quantum computer scientist friendly terms. We opted for an expository presentation style, and provide references for supporting empirical evidence and formal statements concerning mathematical generality. We recall how the quantum model for natural language that we employ canonically combines linguistic meanings with rich linguistic structure, most notably grammar. In… 
Quantum computations for disambiguation and question answering
This paper introduces a new framework that starts from a grammar that can be interpreted by means of tensor contraction, to build word representations as quantum states that serve as input to a quantum algorithm.
Grammar-Aware Question-Answering on Quantum Computers
This work performs the first implementation of an NLP task on noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) hardware and encodes word-meanings in quantum states and explicitly account for grammatical structure, which even in mainstream NLP is not commonplace, by faithfully hard-wiring it as entangling operations.
QNLP in Practice: Running Compositional Models of Meaning on a Quantum Computer
Results on the first NLP experiments conducted on Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) computers for datasets of size ≥ 100 sentences are presented.
Near-Term Advances in Quantum Natural Language Processing
Experiments are described showing that some problems in natural language processing can already be addressed using quantum computers, including topic classing using both a quantum support vector machine and a bag-of-words approach, bigram modeling that can be applied to sequences of words and formal concepts, and ambiguity resolution in verb-noun composition.
Quantum Natural Language Processing: Challenges and Opportunities
The advantages offered byQNLP are discussed, both in terms of performance and methodology, and some considerations about the possible usage QNLP approaches in the place of state-of-the-art deep learning-based ones are given.
Parametrized Quantum Circuits of Synonymous Sentences in Quantum Natural Language Processing
In this paper we develop a compositional vector-based semantics of positive transitive sentences in quantum natural language processing for a non-English language, i.e. Persian, to compare the
Systematic Literature Review: Quantum Machine Learning and its applications
A review of the literature published between 2017 and 2021 to identify, analyze and classify the different types of algorithms used in quantum machine learning and their applications and shows their implementation using computational quantum circuits or ansatzs.
ZX-calculus for the working quantum computer scientist
This review discusses Clifford computation and graphically prove the Gottesman-Knill theorem, a recently introduced extension of the ZX-calculus that allows for convenient reasoning about Toffoli gates, and the recent completeness theorems that show that, in principle, all reasoning about quantum computation can be done using Zx-diagrams.
Natural Language Processing Meets Quantum Physics: A Survey and Categorization
This survey reviews representative methods at the intersection of NLP and quantum physics in the past ten years, categorizing them according to the use of quantum theory, the linguistic targets that are modeled, and the downstream application.
A Survey of Quantum Computing for Finance
A comprehensive summary of the state of the art of quantum computing for financial applications, with particular emphasis on stochastic modeling, optimization, and machine learning, describing how these solutions, adapted to work on a quantum computer, can potentially help to solve financial problems more efficiently and accurately.


Quantum Natural Language Processing on Near-Term Quantum Computers
This work presents a method for mapping DisCoCat diagrams to quantum circuits, compatible both with NISQ devices and with established Quantum Machine Learning techniques, paving the way to near-term applications of quantum technology to natural language processing.
Quantum Language Processing
A representation for linguistic structure that is a Fock-space representation, which allows us to embed problems in language processing into small quantum devices and shows that quantum language processing is BQP-complete, meaning that it is polynomially equivalent to the circuit model of quantum computing.
Open System Categorical Quantum Semantics in Natural Language Processing
This paper shows that further developments in categorical quantum mechanics are relevant to natural language processing too, and provides preliminary evidence of the validity of the proposed new model for word meaning by demonstrating a passage from the vector space model to density matrices.
Quantum Algorithms for Compositional Natural Language Processing
This work shows how computational shortcomings of the CSC approach could be resolved using quantum computation (possibly in addition to existing techniques for dimension reduction) and extends an algorithm from Wiebe, Braun and Lloyd into a quantum algorithm to categorize sentences in CSC.
Reasoning about Meaning in Natural Language with Compact Closed Categories and Frobenius Algebras
The Frobenius algebras enable us to work in a single space in which meanings of words, phrases, and sentences of any structure live and enhance the applicability of the theory.
Quantum picturalism
Why did it take us 50 years since the birth of the quantum mechanical formalism to discover that unknown quantum states cannot be cloned? Yet, the proof of the ‘no-cloning theorem’ is easy, and its
A Study of Entanglement in a Categorical Framework of Natural Language
This paper examines a number of implementations of the categorical framework of Coecke et al.
Ambiguity in Categorical Models of Meaning
This work describes ambiguous words as statistical ensembles of unambiguous concepts and extend the semantics of the previous model to a category that supports probabilistic mixing, and introduces two different Frobenius algebras representing different ways of composing the meaning of words.
Two complete axiomatisations of pure-state qubit quantum computing
Extended versions of ZW and ZX calculus are presented, and their completeness for pure-state qubit theory is proved by a strategy that rewrites all diagrams into a normal form, thus solving two major open problems in categorical quantum mechanics.
Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations
It is shown that single quantum bit operations, Bell-basis measurements and certain entangled quantum states such as Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states are sufficient to construct a universal quantum computer.