Fossil evidence unveils an early Cambrian origin for Bryozoa

  title={Fossil evidence unveils an early Cambrian origin for Bryozoa},
  author={Zhiliang Zhang and Zhifei Zhang and Junye Ma and Paul D. Taylor and Luke C. Strotz and Sarah M. Jacquet and Christian B. Skovsted and Feiyang Chen and Jian Han and Glenn A. Brock},
  pages={251 - 255}
Bryozoans (also known as ectoprocts or moss animals) are aquatic, dominantly sessile, filter-feeding lophophorates that construct an organic or calcareous modular colonial (clonal) exoskeleton1–3. The presence of six major orders of bryozoans with advanced polymorphisms in lower Ordovician rocks strongly suggests a Cambrian origin for the largest and most diverse lophophorate phylum2,4–8. However, a lack of convincing bryozoan fossils from the Cambrian period has hampered resolution of the true… 
The oldest mineralized bryozoan? A possible palaeostomate in the lower Cambrian of Nevada, USA
All skeletal marine invertebrate phyla appeared during the Cambrian explosion, except for Bryozoa with mineralized skeletons, which first appear in the Early Ordovician. However, the skeletal
Bryozoans from the Early Ordovician Fenhsiang Formation (Tremadocian) of South China and the early diversification of the phylum.
Although phosphatized bryozoans have been described recently from the early Cambrian, the first unequivocal bryozoan fossils with hard skeletons are known from the Ordovician. Recent discoveries of
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Paleozoic origins of cheilostome bryozoans and their parental care inferred by a new genome-skimmed phylogeny
The fossil calibration, robust to varied assumptions, indicates that the cheilostome lineage and parental care therein could have Paleozoic origins, much older than the first known fossil record of Cheilostomes in the Late Jurassic.
Diversification dynamics of cheilostome bryozoans based on a Bayesian analysis of the fossil record
Cheilostomata is the most diverse and ecologically dominant order of bryozoans living today. We apply a Bayesian framework to estimate macroevolutionary rates of cheilostomes since the Late Jurassic
Depauperate survival bryozoans following the first episode of the end-Ordovician mass extinction in the Kuanyinchiao Bed (Hirnantian, Upper Ordovician) of northern Guizhou, South China
Few bryozoan faunas have been reported globally from the time of the late-Ordovician mass extinction (LOME). A depauperate bryozoan fauna from the Kuanyinchiao Bed of North Guizhou Province, South
Biodiversity and Ecology of Bryozoans from the Bay of Bengal, East coast of India
The ecological record of bryozoans from the continental shelf-slope region of the southwestern Bay of Bengal is very sparse, prompting this investigation. Forty-five sea-floor sediment samples were
Bryozoan revelations.
Bryozoans, simple invertebrates living on the sea floor, are emerging as a model system for understanding ecological and evolutionary processes on macroevolutionary scales.
Unprecedented frequency of mitochondrial introns in colonial bilaterians
Animal mitogenomes are typically devoid of introns. Here, we report the largest number of mitochondrial introns ever recorded from bilaterian animals. Mitochondrial introns were identified for the


A sclerite-bearing stem group entoproct from the early Cambrian and its implications
The Lophotrochozoa includes disparate tentacle-bearing sessile protostome animals, which apparently appeared in the Cambrian explosion, but lack an uncontested fossil record. Here we describe
Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China)
It is suggested that a key step in deuterostome evolution was the development of lateral openings that subsequently were co-opted as pharyngeal gills in Saccorhytus, which may help to explain the major gap between divergence times seen in the fossil record and estimates based on molecular clocks.
Phylogeny and diversification of bryozoans
A remarkable range of morphological structures in the form of highly modified zooidal polymorphs, or non‐zooidal or intrazooidal modular elements, is postulated to have evolved repeatedly in this group, and can be interpreted as key traits linked to the diversification of cheilostomes.
Ecological innovations in the Cambrian and the origins of the crown group phyla
  • G. Budd, I. Jackson
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2016
It is suggested that the vagrant lifestyle of annelids, nemerteans and molluscs would be independently derived from such a sessile ancestor, with potentially important implications for the homology of their sensory and nervous systems.
Biomineralization in bryozoans: present, past and future
This review focuses on their skeletal ultrastructures, mineralogy and chemistry, the roles of organic components, the evolutionary history of bimineralization in bryozoans with respect to changes in seawater chemistry, and the impact of contemporary global changes, especially ocean acidification, on bryozoan skeletons.
Abstract Previous reports of Cambrian bryozoans have proved not to be bryozoans. No pre-Ordovician bryozoans have been recognized. The oldest unequivocal bryozoans known from North America, Britain,
Key novelties in the evolution of the aquatic colonial phylum Bryozoa: evidence from soft body morphology
Overall, morphological evidence shows that ancestral forms were small, colonial coelomates with a muscular body wall and a U‐shaped gut with ciliary tentacle crown, and were capable of asexual budding.