Fossil evidence of eupolypod ferns in the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar

  title={Fossil evidence of eupolypod ferns in the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar},
  author={Ledis Regalado and Alexander R. Schmidt and Michael Krings and Julia Bechteler and Harald Schneider and Jochen Heinrichs},
  journal={Plant Systematics and Evolution},
Abstract Divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of extant species suggest that eupolypod ferns were diverse already in the Cretaceous; however, fossil evidence to support this assumption remains exceedingly rare. Holttumopteris burmensis gen. et sp. nov., a fertile fern foliage fragment preserved in a piece of Albian–Cenomanian Burmese amber from Myanmar, is characterized by divided fertile leaves with catadromous, free lateral veins. Sporangia possess a vertical annulus… 

Diversification of Eupolypods in Mid-Cretaceous—Evidenced by Myanmar Amber Forest

The evolutionary history of Eupolypods still remains unclear, especially on its diversification scenarios. In recent years, it has been found that approximately 100 million-year-old Myanmar amber

A fossil species of the enigmatic early polypod fern genus Cystodium (Cystodiaceae) in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar

The fossil strengthens the hypothesis that the forest ecosystems of Malesia and Melanesia represent refugia for many tropical plant lineages that originated in the Cretaceous.

Heinrichsia cheilanthoides gen. et sp. nov., a fossil fern in the family Pteridaceae (Polypodiales) from the Cretaceous amber forests of Myanmar

Heinrichsia cheilanthoides further substantiates the suggestion that the Cretaceous forests of Myanmar were home to a rich fern flora and provides a new calibration point to test and refine molecular clock‐based concepts of the evolutionary history of the Pteridaceae.

Simultaneous diversification of Polypodiales and angiosperms in the Mesozoic

The estimated divergence patterns of Polypodiales and angiosperms converge to a scenario in which their main lineages were established simultaneously shortly before the onset of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution, and further suggest a pre‐Cretaceous hidden history for both lineages.

How diverse were ferns in the Baltic amber forest?

It is suggested that the scarcity of fern remains from Baltic amber may reflect both a relatively low fern diversity in the source area of the fossil resin, and an absence or rarity of epiphytic and climbing ferns as observed in modern temperate forest ecosystems.

Anatomical examination of the petiole of eupolypods I (Polypodiales)

Based on the results, a taxonomic key to the families of eupolypods I was constructed and showed five taxonomically significant characters that can serve as family markers.

Divergent evolutionary trajectories of bryophytes and tracheophytes from a complex common ancestor of land plants

It is confirmed that extant tracheophytes and bryophytes are both highly derived; as a result, understanding the origin of land plants requires tracing character evolution across the diversity of modern lineages.

An open and continuously updated fern tree of life

This work develops a mostly automated, reproducible, open pipeline to generate a continuously updated fern tree of life (FTOL) from DNA sequence data available in GenBank, and uses a curated reference taxonomy to resolve synonyms in general compliance with the community-driven Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group I classification.



Cyathea cranhamii sp. nov. (Cyatheaceae), anatomically preserved tree fern sori from the Lower Cretaceous of Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

Permineralized cyatheaceous sori occur among remains of conifers, fungi, and other plants in newly discovered calcareous concretions from Early Cretaceous (Barremian) marine sediments of Vancouver

Fossiliferous Cretaceous Amber from Myanmar (Burma): Its Rediscovery, Biotic Diversity, and Paleontological Significance

The stratigraphic distribution of exclusively Mesozoic arthropods in Burmese amber is reviewed, which indicates a probable Turonian-Cenomanian age of this material.

Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms

It is shown that polypod ferns (> 80% of living fern species) diversified in the Cretaceous, after angiosperms, suggesting perhaps an ecological opportunistic response to the diversification of angios perms, as angiosPerms came to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

A review of selected triassic to Early Cretaceous ferns

After becoming nearly extinct during the Permian, the ferns began a slow recovery during the Triassic as the climate of the earth moderated, but with the rapid expansion of the angiosperms during the Late Cretaceous, they once again became reduced in variety and greatly restricted in distribution.