Fortune favors the ( ): Effects of disfluency on educational outcomes

  title={Fortune favors the 
 ): Effects of disfluency on educational outcomes},
  author={Connor Diemand-Yauman and Daniel M. Oppenheimer and Erikka B. Vaughan},
Previous research has shown that disfluency--the subjective experience of difficulty associated with cognitive operations - leads to deeper processing. Two studies explore the extent to which this deeper processing engendered by disfluency interventions can lead to improved memory performance. Study 1 found that information in hard-to-read fonts was better remembered than easier to read information in a controlled laboratory setting. Study 2 extended this finding to high school classrooms. The… Expand
How the Benefits of Disfluency in Education Vary with Ability and Dyslexia
Previous research has shown that presenting educational materials in slightly harder to read (disfluent) fonts than is typical engenders deeper processing. This leads to better retention andExpand
The effects of different levels of disfluency on learning outcomes and cognitive load
In some cases difficult-to-read learning materials lead to better performance than easy to-read materials. This phenomenon is called the disfluency effect and is attributed to a subjective feeling ofExpand
Null Effects of Perceptual Disfluency on Learning Outcomes in a Text-Based Educational Context: a Meta-analysis
Recent research in a text-based educational context has demonstrated a seemingly paradoxical disfluency effect in reading, namely that learning with hard-to-read (disfluent) materials helps learnersExpand
Is disfluency desirable for learning
Abstract While some difficult learning conditions can improve learning, the findings regarding the contribution to learning of disfluent, hard-to-read text materials have been inconsistent. WeExpand
Effect of disfluency on learning outcomes, metacognitive judgments and cognitive load in computer assisted learning environments
The effect of fluency modifications on learning outcomes, metacognitive judgments and cognitive load is investigated with a true experiment conducted with 292 undergraduate students who were assigned randomly to one of the six disfluency scenarios in a computer-based learning environment. Expand
The Search for Moderators in Disfluency Research
Summary Recent research has demonstrated that, under the right circumstances, making fonts harder to read can improve educational outcomes. However, the initial demonstrations did not fully mapExpand
Testing Expectancy, but not Judgements of Learning, Moderate the Disfluency Effect
Examination of two potential boundary conditions to determine when disfluent text is, and is not, beneficial to learning revealed that type of JOL did not moderate the disfluency effect, but testing expectancy did. Expand
Effects of disfluency and test expectancy on learning with text
Do students learn better with texts that are (i.e., disfluent)? Previous research yielded discrepant findings concerning this question. To clarify these discrepancies, the present study aimed atExpand
Effects of Disfluent Kanji Fonts on Reading Retention with E-Book
  • Ming-Hsin Lee
  • Computer Science
  • 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies
  • 2013
The results suggested that the disfluent font of the learning texts could produce significant improvements in reading retention and the effect of disfluency by varying Japanese kanji fonts for students who are learning Japanese as a second language. Expand
Effects of disfluency on cognitive and metacognitive processes and outcomes
As counterpart of fluency, the concept of disfluency refers to the metacognitive experience of ease or difficulty associated with completing a mental task. If task completion is perceived as easy orExpand


Metacomprehension for educationally relevant materials: Dramatic effects of encoding-retrieval interactions
This work considers the metacomprehension literature with an emphasis on factors that impact metacmprehension accuracy, and suggests that matching enriched-encoding activities with the criterial test plays a critical role in metacomplexion accuracy and control of studying. Expand
Memory predictions are influenced by perceptual information: evidence for metacognitive illusions.
Highly accessible perceptual cues can strongly influence JOLs, likely via encoding fluency, and this effect can lead to metacognitive illusions. Expand
The secret life of fluency
The role of fluency is more nuanced than previously believed and that understanding fluency could be of critical importance to understanding cognition more generally. Expand
Uniting the Tribes of Fluency to Form a Metacognitive Nation
  • Adam L. Alter, Daniel M. Oppenheimer
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 2009
The authors argue that fluency is a ubiquitous metacognitive cue in reasoning and social judgment and offers the first comprehensive review of such mechanisms and their implications for judgment and decision making. Expand
Effects of Fluency on Psychological Distance and Mental Construal (or Why New York Is a Large City, but New York Is a Civilized Jungle)
It is shown that people are more likely to interpret the world abstractly when they experience cognitive disfluency, or difficulty processing stimuli in the environment, than when theyExperience cognitive fluency. Expand
The Generation Effect: Delineation of a Phenomenon
Five experiments are reported comparing memory for words that were generated by the subjects themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance inExpand
Overcoming intuition: metacognitive difficulty activates analytic reasoning.
Four experiments suggest that System 2 processes are activated by metacognitive experiences of difficulty or disfluency during the process of reasoning that reduced the impact of heuristics and defaults in judgment, reduced reliance on peripheral cues in persuasion, and improved syllogistic reasoning. Expand
The Generation Effect: Support for a Two-Factor Theory
When a response word bearing an orthographic, acoustic, or semantic relation to a stimulus word is generated rather than read, later recall is enhanced. Such "generation effects" have been attributedExpand
When asked, “How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?” most people respond “Two” despite knowing that Noah rather than Moses was the biblical actor. Two experiments tested the role ofExpand
When text difficulty benefits less-skilled readers
The mnemonic effects of increased text difficulty were examined for skilled and less skilled college readers for fairy tales and expository texts. One difficulty manipulation was designed toExpand