Formyl peptide receptor-like proteins are a novel family of vomeronasal chemosensors

  title={Formyl peptide receptor-like proteins are a novel family of vomeronasal chemosensors},
  author={St{\'e}phane Rivi{\`e}re and Ludivine Challet and Daniela Fluegge and Marc Spehr and Ivan Rodriguez},
Mammals rely heavily on olfaction to interact adequately with each other and with their environment. They make use of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors to identify odorants and pheromones. These receptors are present on dendrites of olfactory sensory neurons located in the main olfactory or vomeronasal sensory epithelia, and pertain to the odorant, trace amine-associated receptor and vomeronasal type 1 (ref. 4) or 2 (refs 5–7) receptor superfamilies. Whether these four sensor… 
Signaling in the Mammalian Vomeronasal Organ
It is shown that the two classes of vomeronasal receptors V1Rs and V2Rs use different strategies to encode chemosensory information, and possible roles for the FPRs include the assessment of conspecifics or other species, based on variability in normal bacterial or mitochrondrial proteins.
Calreticulin chaperones regulate functional expression of vomeronasal type 2 pheromone receptors
It is shown that calreticulin, a housekeeping chaperone commonly expressed in most eukaryotic cells, is sparsely expressed in the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and postulate that V2Rs may use a unique trafficking mechanism whereby an important and more commonly expressed chaper one is deleterious for membrane export and is replaced by a functionally equivalent homolog that does not inhibit export while carrying out its functions.
Evolution of Chemosensory Receptor Genes in Primates and Other Mammals
It appears that the repertoires of chemosensory receptor genes in each species are largely determined by the needs from each species living environment, and the reduction of repertoire sizes in primates would reflect their reliance on vision rather than olfaction.
Strain-specific Loss of Formyl Peptide Receptor 3 in the Murine Vomeronasal and Immune Systems*
In vitro calcium imaging and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that the lack of four amino acids leads to an unstable, truncated, and non-functional receptor protein, which provides a foundation for understanding the in vivo function of Fpr3.
The genomic basis of vomeronasal-mediated behaviour
The vomeronasal organ mediates a range of social behaviours, including male–male and maternal aggression, sexual attraction, lordosis, and selective pregnancy termination, as well as interspecific responses such as avoidance and defensive behaviours.
Family structure and phylogenetic analysis of odorant receptor genes in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea)
About 100 OR genes are shown to be expressed in the olfactory epithelial tissues of L. crocea, and the result of real-time PCR shows that different clades of ORs have distinct expression levels.
Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) has orthologs of vertebrate odorant receptors
The identification of vertebrate OR orthologs in amphioxus will lead to an improved understanding of OR gene family evolution, OR gene function, and the mechanisms that control cell-specific expression, axonal guidance, signal transduction and signal integration.
Structure and function of a peptide pheromone family that stimulate the vomeronasal sensory system in mice.
The discovery of a 7 kDa peptide, ESP1 (exocrine-gland-secreting peptide 1), in tear fluids from male mice that enhances the sexual behaviour of female mice via the VNO and a structural basis for the narrowly tuned perception of mammalian peptide pheromones by vomeronasal receptors is indicated.
Formyl Peptide Receptors from Immune and Vomeronasal System Exhibit Distinct Agonist Properties*
It is shown that the vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 can be activated robustly by W-peptide and structural derivatives but not by other typical ligands of immune Fprs, which is consistent with a role in vomer onasal pathogen sensing.


A novel family of genes encoding putative pheromone receptors in mammals
A New Multigene Family of Putative Pheromone Receptors
Ultrasensitive pheromone detection by mammalian vomeronasal neurons
This work uses a mouse VNO slice preparation to show that six putative pheromones evoke excitatory responses in single vomeronasal neurons, leading to action potential generation and elevated calcium entry, providing a basis for understanding chemical signals that regulate mammalian communication and sexual behaviour.
A second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium
The evolutionary conservation of the TAAR family suggests a chemosensory function distinct from odorant receptors, and ligands identified for TAARs thus far suggest a function associated with the detection of social cues.
Arachidonic Acid Plays a Role in Rat Vomeronasal Signal Transduction
Evidence is provided for a role of PUFAs in rat vomeronasal signal transduction by application of urine and the possible role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as intracellular messengers in freshly dissociated rat VNO neurons.
[A molecular basis for odorant recognition: olfactory receptor pharmacology].
It is shown that mOR-EG, a mouse olfactory receptor that was isolated from a eugenol-responsive cell, recognizes 22 different odorants with EC50 values ranging from a few microM to several hundred microM, and rational receptor design with predicted ligand specificity is succeeded by introducing point mutations in the binding site, confirming the accuracy of thebinding site mapping.
Sulfated Steroids as Natural Ligands of Mouse Pheromone-Sensing Neurons
Urine concentrations of the two sulfated glucocorticoids increased many fold in stressed animals, indicating that information about physiological status is encoded by the urine concentration of particular sulfated steroids.