This paper proposes a novel approach for the formulation of elastic modulus of both normal-strength concrete (NSC) and high-strength concrete (HSC) using a variant of genetic programming (GP), namely linear genetic programming (LGP). LGP-based models relate the modulus of elasticity of NSC and HSC to the compressive strength, as similarly presented in several codes of practice. The models are developed based on experimental results collected from the literature. A subsequent parametric analysis is further carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the elastic modulus to the compressive strength variations. The results demonstrate that the proposed formulas can predict the elastic modulus with an acceptable degree of accuracy. The LGP results are found to be more accurate than those obtained using the buildings codes and various solutions reported in the literature. The LGP-based formulas are quite simple and straightforward and can be used reliably for routine design practice.