Formation of supermassive black holes by direct collapse in pre-galactic haloes

  title={Formation of supermassive black holes by direct collapse in pre-galactic haloes},
  author={Mitchell C. Begelman and Marta Volonteri and Martin J. Rees},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
We describe a mechanism by which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) can form directly in the nuclei of protogalaxies, without the need for 'seed' black holes left over from early star formation. Self-gravitating gas in dark matter haloes can lose angular momentum rapidly via runaway, global dynamical instabilities, the so-called 'bars within bars' mechanism. This leads to the rapid build-up of a dense, self-gravitating core supported by gas pressure - surrounded by a radiation pressure-dominated… 

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