Formation of spicules by sclerocytes from the freshwater spongeEphydatia muelleri in short-term cultures in vitro

  title={Formation of spicules by sclerocytes from the freshwater spongeEphydatia muelleri in short-term cultures in vitro},
  author={Georg Imsiecke and Renate Steffen and M{\'a}rcio Reis Cust{\'o}dio and Radovan Borojevic and Werner E. G. M{\"u}ller},
  journal={In Vitro Cellular \& Developmental Biology - Animal},
SummaryCells from the freshwater spongeEphydatia muelleri were isolated by dissociating hatching gemmules. During the first 24 h the cells reaggregated, but the aggregates progressively disintegrated again to single cells, among which the spicule-forming sclerocytes were recognized. Such cultures were used to study spicule (megascleres) formation in vitro. The isolated sclerocytes formed the organic central axial filament onto which they deposited inorganic silicon. The size of the spicules… 

Dynamics of spicule production in the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis during in vitro cell culture and seasonal development in the field

Silicatein expression in the bloom stage was more than 100 times higher than that in the other stages and was correlated with the spicule developmental stage, and the trend of spicules formation in field-grown sponges was consistent with the trend in cell culture.

Analysis of silicatein gene expression and spicule formation in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica

Investigation of the process of spiculogenesis in the different developmental stages of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, and the evolution and developmental expression of the silicatein gene family in relation to spicule formation, suggests that these genes have preserved an ancestral gene structure common to both families in both marine and freshwater sponges.

Evagination of Cells Controls Bio-Silica Formation and Maturation during Spicule Formation in Sponges

The enzymatic-silicatein mediated formation of the skeletal elements, the spicules of siliceous sponges starts intracellularly and is completed extracellularly, and the sequence of events that govern spicule formation is termed bio-inorganic self-organization.

Tropical freshwater sponges develop from gemmules faster than their temperate-region counterparts

The development during gemmule germination of two neotropical freshwater sponges, Radiospongilla inesi and Heteromeyenia cristalina is described and differences in the developmental stages between the studied species were observed, suggesting that development is species specific.

The biology of glass sponges.

The unique invention of the siliceous sponges: their enzymatically made bio-silica skeleton.

It is proposed that the key innovation that allowed the earliest metazoans to form larger specimens was the enzyme silicatein, crucial for the formation of the siliceous skeleton.

Purification and in vitro cultivation of archaeocytes (stem cells) of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve (Demospongiae)

A novel four-step protocol for the purification of archaeocytes from a marine sponge, Hymeniacidon perleve, opens an important avenue towards developing sponge cell cultures for the commercial exploitation of sponge-derived drugs.

Sponge spicules as blueprints for the biofabrication of inorganic–organic composites and biomaterials

First bioinspired approaches implement recombinant silicatein and silintaphin-1 for applications in the field of biomedicine (biosilica-mediated regeneration of tooth and bone defects) or micro-optics (in vitro synthesis of light waveguides) with promising results.

Complex structures – smart solutions: Formation of siliceous spicules

It has now been found that the initial axial orientation, in which the spicules grow, is guided by cell processes through evagination, and highlights that for the ultimate determination of theSpicule shapes, their species-specific morphologies, bio-silica hardens during a process which removes reaction water.



The differentiation of sclerocytes in fresh-water sponges grown in a silica-poor medium

It is suggested that these flexible rods correspond to the organic axes of normal spicules, which would mean that the differentiation of sclerocytes does not depend on the presence of usable concentrations of silica.

Ingestion, digestion, and egestion in Spongilla lacustris (Porifera, Spongillidae) after pulse feeding with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Volvocales)

Signs of the digestive process in electron micrographs include disappearance of the cell-wall layers, the flagella, and the pyrenoid and its starch sheath, as well as a progressive increase in the density of the cytoplasm and karyoplasm.

An ultrastructural study of silica deposition in the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris.

On the hibernation of Spongilla lacustris (L.)

  • E. Zeuthen
  • Chemistry
    Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie
  • 2004
SummaryThe osmotic pressure of the summer-sponge is about 25–30 mM NaCl. At and after gemmulation it increases to about 110 mM (in a single case 175 mM was found), due to a liberation of small

Retinoic acid acts as a morphogen in freshwater sponges

It is concluded that RA induces modifications in mesohyl cell adhesion and interaction, analogous to that observed in induction of reduction bodies formation or gemmulogenesis.


A substantial portion of the axial filament of the spicules of silicious sponges is protein, and it is feasible to follow the course ofsilicious deposition in spicule using C14 or H3 in protein precursors.

On the monophyletic evolution of the metazoa.

The deduced amino acid sequence of G. cydonium showed high homology to chicken and to the Antennapedia sequence from Drosophila melanogaster, which supports the view that the kingdom Animalia is of monophyletic origin.

Effects of Germanium on Silica Deposition in Sponges

Although the elements germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) have similar attributes, there are important differences in their chemistry which are reflected in the results of experiments employing

A simple cytochemical technique for demonstration of DNA in cells infected with mycoplasmas and viruses

DAPI will bind differentially to yeast mitochondrial and nuclear DNA forming highly fluorescent complexes and enhancing the separation of the two DNAs in caesium chloride gradients, which can be used as a highly specific fluorescent stain for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in yeast.