Formation of siliceous spicules in the marine demosponge Suberites domuncula

  title={Formation of siliceous spicules in the marine demosponge Suberites domuncula},
  author={Werner E. G. M{\"u}ller and Matthias Rothenberger and Alexandra Boreiko and Wolfgang Tremel and Andreas Reiber and Heinz C. Schröder},
  journal={Cell and Tissue Research},
The siliceous skeleton of demosponges is constructed of spicules. We have studied the formation of spicules in primmorphs from Suberites domuncula. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron-microscopical (TEM) analyses have revealed, in the center of the spicules, an axial canal that is 0.3–1.6 μm wide and filled with an axial filament. This filament is composed of the enzyme silicatein, which synthesizes the spicules. TEM analysis has shown that spicule formation starts… 

Formation of giant spicules in the deep-sea hexactinellid Monorhaphis chuni (Schulze 1904): electron-microscopic and biochemical studies

It is suggested that, in the Hexactinellida, the growth of the spicules is mediated by silicatein or by a silicatesin-related protein, with the orientation of biosilica deposition being controlled by lectin and collagen.

Histochemical and Electron Microscopic Analysis of Spiculogenesis in the Demosponge Suberites domuncula

Data indicate that species-specific formation of spicules involves a network of (diffusible) regulatory factor(s) controlling enzymatic silica deposition; this mineralization process proceeds on a galectin/collagen organic matrix.

Siliceous spicules in marine demosponges (example Suberites domuncula).

Silicatein expression in the hexactinellid Crateromorpha meyeri: the lead marker gene restricted to siliceous sponges

The morphology of the spicules (diactines and stauractines) of the hexactinellid Crateromorpha meyeri is described and it is shown that anti-silicatein antibodies react specifically with the proteinaceous matrix of the C.meyeri spicule, indicating that silicatein is an autapomorphic molecule common to both classes of siliceous sponges.

Hierarchical composition of the axial filament from spicules of the siliceous sponge Suberites domuncula: from biosilica-synthesizing nanofibrils to structure- and morphology-guiding triangular stems

It is concluded that the silicatein-composing nanofibrils act not only as enzymatic silica bio-condensing platforms but also as a structure-giving guidance for the growing spicule.

Dynamics of spicule production in the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis during in vitro cell culture and seasonal development in the field

Silicatein expression in the bloom stage was more than 100 times higher than that in the other stages and was correlated with the spicule developmental stage, and the trend of spicules formation in field-grown sponges was consistent with the trend in cell culture.

Circumferential spicule growth by pericellular silica deposition in the hexactinellid sponge Monorhaphis chuni

It is shown that the formation of an outermost lamella begins with the association of cell clusters with the surface of the thickening and/or growing spicule, where they remain and initiate the development of the next lamellae.



Silica deposition in Demosponges: spiculogenesis in Crambe crambe

Transmission electron-microscopy images coupled with dispersive X-ray analysis of the species Crambe crambe have provided information on the process of silica deposition in Demosponges and Si deposition starts at regularly distributed sites along the axial filament.

Dynamics of skeleton formation in the Lake Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Part I. Biological and biochemical studies

It is shown for the first time that the turnover of silicatein, the major element of the axial canal of sponge spicules, changes within a sponge specimen depending on the region in which it is found.

Siliceous spicules and skeleton frameworks in sponges: Origin, diversity, ultrastructural patterns, and biological functions

The process of silica deposition in sponges at the molecular and cellular levels, as well as the biological and ecological functions of spicules and skeletons are reviewed.

Expression of silicatein and collagen genes in the marine sponge Suberites domuncula is controlled by silicate and myotrophin.

It was found that after increasing the concentration of soluble silicate in the seawater medium from around 1 microM to approximately 60 microM, this gene is strongly upregulated and the expression of collagen is also upregulated in those primmorphs which were treated with recombinant myotrophin obtained from the same sponge.

Fiber diffraction study of spicules from marine sponges

A synchrotron radiation fiber diffraction structural study of the axial filament of siliceous spicules from two species of marine sponges indicated that the protein units in the filament of both samples were highly organized.

Molecular Cloning of Silicatein Gene from Marine Sponge Petrosia ficiformis (Porifera, Demospongiae) and Development of Primmorphs as a Model for Biosilicification Studies

The isolation and the molecular characterization of silicatein from spicules of Petrosia ficiformis, and the development of a cellular model (primmorphs) suitable for in vitro studies of silicatesin gene regulation are described.

Molecular mechanism of spicule formation in the demosponge Suberites domuncula: silicatein--collagen--myotrophin.

It is surprising that the occurrence of silica as a major skeletal element is restricted to some Protozoa and to sponges (Porifera), which is - after oxygen - the second most abundant element on earth.

Physical and chemical analysis of the siliceous skeletons in six sponges of two groups (demospongiae and hexactinellida)

  • F. Sandford
  • Environmental Science
    Microscopy research and technique
  • 2003
The siliceous skeletons in demosponges and hexactinellids are largely indistinguishable, and similar spectra to that of silica gel both before and after heating to 1,200°C are shown.

Arginine kinase in the demosponge Suberites domuncula: regulation of its expression and catalytic activity by silicic acid

It is demonstrated that prim Morphs from the demosponge Suberites domuncula express the gene for arginine kinase after exposure to exogenous silicic acid, and transmission electron-microscopical studies showed that primmorphs containing high levels of arginin kinase also produce siliceous spicules.

Silica transport in the demosponge Suberites domuncula: fluorescence emission analysis using the PDMPO probe and cloning of a potential transporter.

Results from combined cytobiological and molecularbiological techniques suggest that, in the demosponge Suberites domuncula, silicic acid is taken up by a transporter that is involved in silica uptake and is termed the NBCSA [Na+/HCO3-[Si(OH)4]] co-transporter.