Formation of planetary systems by pebble accretion and migration

  title={Formation of planetary systems by pebble accretion and migration},
  author={Bertram Bitsch and Andr{\'e} Izidoro and Anders Johansen and Sean N. Raymond and Alessandro Morbidelli and Michiel Lambrechts and Seth Andrew Jacobson},
  journal={Astronomy \& Astrophysics},
At least 30% of main sequence stars host planets with sizes of between 1 and 4 Earth radii and orbital periods of less than 100 days. We use N-body simulations including a model for gas-assisted pebble accretion and disk–planet tidal interaction to study the formation of super-Earth systems. We show that the integrated pebble mass reservoir creates a bifurcation between hot super-Earths or hot-Neptunes (≲15 M⊕) and super-massive planetary cores potentially able to become gas giant planets (≳15… 
The eccentricity distribution of giant planets and their relation to super-Earths in the pebble accretion scenario
Observations of the population of cold Jupiter planets ($r>$1 AU) show that nearly all of these planets orbit their host star on eccentric orbits. For planets up to a few Jupiter masses, eccentric
Promoted mass growth of multiple, distant giant planets through pebble accretion and planet–planet collision
We propose a pebble-driven planet formation scenario to form giant planets with high multiplicity and large orbital distances in the early gas disc phase. We perform N-body simulations to
In situ formation of hot Jupiters with companion super-Earths
Observations have confirmed the existence of multiple-planet systems containing a hot Jupiter and smaller planetary companions. Examples include WASP-47, Kepler-730, and TOI-1130. We examine the
Exploring the conditions for forming cold gas giants through planetesimal accretion
The formation of cold gas giants similar to Jupiter and Saturn in orbit and mass is a great challenge for planetesimal-driven core accretion models because the core growth rates far from the star are
Influence of migration models and thermal torque on planetary growth in the pebble accretion scenario
Low-mass planets that are in the process of growing larger within protoplanetary disks exchange torques with the disk and change their semi-major axis accordingly. This process is called type I
Kepler-167e as a Probe of the Formation Histories of Cold Giants with Inner Super-Earths
The observed correlation between outer giant planets and inner super-Earths is emerging as an important constraint on planet formation theories. In this study, we focus on Kepler-167, which is
Final Masses of Giant Planets. III. Effect of Photoevaporation and a New Planetary Migration Model
We herein develop a new simple model for giant planet formation, which predicts the final mass of a giant planet born in a given disk, by adding the disk mass loss due to photoevaporation and a new
Inner rocky super-Earth formation: distinguishing the formation pathways in viscously heated and passive discs
  • B. Bitsch
  • Physics, Geology
    Astronomy & Astrophysics
  • 2019
Observations have revealed that super-Earths (planets up to 10 Earth masses) are the most abundant type of planets in the inner systems. Their formation is strongly linked to the structure of the
Unified Simulations of Planetary Formation and Atmospheric Evolution. II. Rapid Disk Clearing by Photoevaporation Yields Low-mass Super-Earth Atmospheres
Super-Earths possess low-mass H$_2$/He atmospheres (typically less than 10% by mass). However, the origins of super-Earth atmospheres have not yet been ascertained. We investigate the role of rapid
Planet formation by pebble accretion in ringed disks
Context. Pebble accretion is expected to be the dominant process for the formation of massive solid planets, such as the cores of giant planets and super-Earths. So far, this process has been studied


Forming Planets via Pebble Accretion
The detection and characterization of large populations of pebbles in protoplanetary disks have motivated the study of pebble accretion as a driver of planetary growth. This review covers all aspects
Formation of Earth-like Planets During and After Giant Planet Migration
Close-in giant planets are thought to have formed in the cold outer regions of planetary systems and migrated inward, passing through the orbital parameter space occupied by the terrestrial planets
Debris disks as signposts of terrestrial planet formation
There exists strong circumstantial evidence from their eccentric orbits that most of the known extra-solar planetary systems are the survivors of violent dynamical instabilities. Here we explore the
Forming the cores of giant planets from the radial pebble flux in protoplanetary discs
The formation of planetary cores must proceed rapidly in order for the giant planets to accrete their gaseous envelopes before the dissipation of the protoplanetary gas disc (less than or similar to
Pebble Accretion and the Diversity of Planetary Systems
I examine the standard model of planet formation, including pebble accretion, using numerical simulations. Planetary embryos large enough to become giant planets do not form beyond the ice line
Rapid growth of gas-giant cores by pebble accretion
The observed lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary discs place strong constraints on gas and ice giant formation in the core accretion scenario. The approximately 10-Earth-mass solid core responsible
Oligarchic and giant impact growth of terrestrial planets in the presence of gas giant planet migration
Giant planets found orbiting close to their central stars, the so-called hot Jupiters, are thought to have originally formed in the cooler outer regions of a protoplanetary disk and then to have
The growth of planets by pebble accretion in evolving protoplanetary discs
The formation of planets depends on the underlying protoplanetary disc structure, which in turn influences both the accretion and migration rates of embedded planets. The disc itself evolves on time
Debris disks as signposts of terrestrial planet formation - II. Dependence of exoplanet architectures on giant planet and disk properties
We present models for the formation of terrestrial planets, and the collisional evolution of debris disks, in planetary systems that contain multiple marginally unstable gas giants. We previousl y
Planet Formation: An Optimized Population-synthesis Approach
  • J. Chambers
  • Geology, Physics
    The Astrophysical Journal
  • 2018
The physics of planet formation is investigated using a population synthesis approach. We develop a simple model for planetary growth including pebble and gas accretion, and orbital migration in an