# Formation of massive seed black holes via collisions and accretion

@article{Boekholt2018FormationOM,
title={Formation of massive seed black holes via collisions and accretion},
author={Tjarda Boekholt and Dominik R G Schleicher and Michael Fellhauer and Ralf S. Klessen and Basti'an Reinoso and Amelia M. Stutz and Lionel Haemmerl{\'e}},
journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
year={2018},
volume={476},
pages={366-380}
}
• Published 17 January 2018
• Physics, Geology
• Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Models aiming to explain the formation of massive black hole seeds, and in particular the direct collapse scenario, face substantial difficulties. These are rooted in rather ad hoc and fine-tuned initial conditions, such as the simultaneous requirements of extremely low metallicities and strong radiation backgrounds. Here we explore a modification of such scenarios where a massive primordial star cluster is initially produced. Subsequent stellar collisions give rise to the formation of massive…

## Figures and Tables from this paper

Stellar collisions in flattened and rotating Population III star clusters
• Physics
• 2021
Fragmentation often occurs in disk-like structures, both in the early Universe and in the context of present-day star formation. Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are astrophysical objects whose
Forming massive seed black holes in high-redshift quasar host progenitors
• Physics
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
• 2021
The presence of massive black holes (BHs) with masses of the order of $10^9\, {\rm M_\odot }$, powering bright quasars when the Universe was less than 1 Gyr old, poses strong constraints on their
The Role of Gas Fragmentation During the Formation of Supermassive Black Holes
• Physics
The Astrophysical Journal
• 2019
We have performed cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of fragmentation on the SMBH seed mass in the direct collapse formation scenario. We considered different background UV
Supermassive star formation via super competitive accretion in slightly metal-enriched clouds
• Physics
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
• 2020
Direct collapse black hole (DCBH) formation with mass ≳105 M⊙ is a promising scenario for the origin of high-redshift supermassive black holes. It has usually been supposed that the DCBH can only
The effects of a background potential in star cluster evolution
• Physics
• 2020
Runaway stellar collisions in dense star clusters are invoked to explain the presence of very massive stars or blue stragglers in the center of those systems. This process has also been explored for
Radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the birth of intermediate-mass black holes in the first galaxies
• Physics
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
• 2021
The leading contenders for the seeds of z > 6 quasars are direct-collapse black holes (DCBHs) forming in atomically cooled haloes at z ∼ 20. However, the Lyman–Werner (LW) UV background required to
Making a Supermassive Star by Stellar Bombardment
• Physics, Geology
The Astrophysical Journal
• 2020
Approximately two hundred supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have been discovered within the first $\sim$Gyr after the Big Bang. One pathway for the formation of SMBHs is through the collapse of
Formation of SMBH seeds in Population III star clusters through collisions: the importance of mass loss
• Physics
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
• 2020
Runaway collisions in dense clusters may lead to the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds, and this process can be further enhanced by accretion, as recent models of SMBH seed
Effect of mass-loss due to stellar winds on the formation of supermassive black hole seeds in dense nuclear star clusters
• Physics
• 2021
The observations of high redshifts quasars at z & 6 have revealed that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) of mass∼ 109M were already in place within the first ∼ Gyr after the Big Bang. Supermassive
Formation of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei – I. Delivering seed intermediate-mass black holes in massive stellar clusters
• Physics
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
• 2021
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are found in most galactic nuclei. A significant fraction of these nuclei also contains a nuclear stellar cluster (NSC) surrounding the SMBH. In this paper, we

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 72 REFERENCES
Collisional formation of very massive stars in dense clusters
• Physics, Geology
• 2010
We investigate the contraction of accreting protoclusters using an extension of n-body techniques that incorporates the accretional growth of stars from the gaseous reservoir in which they are
Formation of massive black holes through runaway collisions in dense young star clusters
• Physics
Nature
• 2004
Numerical simulations of the evolution and motion of stars within the clusters find that for MGG 11 dynamical friction leads to the massive stars sinking rapidly to the centre of the cluster, where they participate in a runaway collision.
The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early Universe
• Physics
• 2013
Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant universe a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial halos with \$\rm
The role of stellar collisions for the formation of massive stars
• Physics, Geology
• 2010
We use direct N-body simulations of gas embedded star clusters to study the importance of stellar collisions for the formation and mass accretion history of high-mass stars. Our clusters start in
Formation of supermassive black holes by direct collapse in pre-galactic haloes
• Physics
• 2006
We describe a mechanism by which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) can form directly in the nuclei of protogalaxies, without the need for 'seed' black holes left over from early star formation.
Constraining the high-redshift formation of black hole seeds in nuclear star clusters with gas inflows
• Physics
• 2014
In this paper, we explore a possible route of black hole seed formation that appeals to a model by Davies, Miller & Bellovary who considered the case of the dynamical collapse of a dense cluster of
On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars
• Physics, Geology
• 2017
Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z~6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or
SIMULATIONS ON A MOVING MESH: THE CLUSTERED FORMATION OF POPULATION III PROTOSTARS
• Physics
• 2011
The cosmic dark ages ended a few hundred million years after the big bang, when the first stars began to fill the universe with new light. It has generally been argued that these stars formed in
Spin, accretion, and the cosmological growth of supermassive black holes
If supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are the energy sources that power quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), then QSO SDSS 1148+5251, the quasar with the highest redshift (zQSO = 6.43), hosts an
FORMATION OF THE FIRST NUCLEAR CLUSTERS AND MASSIVE BLACK HOLES AT HIGH REDSHIFT
• Physics
• 2009
We present a model for the formation of massive black holes (~1000 M ☉) due to stellar-dynamical processes in the first stellar clusters formed at early cosmic times (z ~ 10-20). These black holes