Formation of extracellular and intracellular ice during warming of vitrified mouse morulae and its effect on embryo survival.


In vitrified solutions, ice can form during warming if the concentration of the cryoprotectant is insufficient. For the cryopreservation of cells, ice is innocuous when it remains outside the cell, but intracellular ice (ICI) is lethal. We tried to estimate the conditions in which ICI forms in vitrified mouse morulae during warming. The solutions for the… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2008.03.004