Current and future prospects for nanotechnology in animal production
A simple preparation method for biocompatible nanoparticles in high concentration (0.5 wt %) by self-assembly of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysates was developed. Chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose were hydrolyzed beforehand with chitosanase and cellulase respectively to make fragments having lower molecular weights. Nanoparticles were spontaneously formed only by mixing the two hydrolysate solutions. The particle size distribution was relatively narrow, about 200 nm in mean size. The mean particle size decreased from 226 nm to 165 nm with decreasing molecular weight of chitosan hydrolysate from 9.5 to 6.8 kDa. The mixing ratio of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysates also affected particle size. Changes in particle size are discussed in relation to a possible mechanism of polyionic complexation. The chitosan-carboxymethyl cellulose nanoparticles were stably suspended over 1 week even under low pH (pH 3.0), high ionic strength (NaCl 1 M), or low temperature (4 degrees C) conditions.