Formation of Glasses from Liquids and Biopolymers

  title={Formation of Glasses from Liquids and Biopolymers},
  author={C. Austen Angell},
  pages={1924 - 1935}
  • C. Angell
  • Published 31 March 1995
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Science
Glasses can be formed by many routes. In some cases, distinct polyamorphic forms are found. The normal mode of glass formation is cooling of a viscous liquid. Liquid behavior during cooling is classified between "strong" and "fragile," and the three canonical characteristics of relaxing liquids are correlated through the fragility. Strong liquids become fragile liquids on compression. In some cases, such conversions occur during cooling by a weak first-order transition. This behavior can be… 
Thermodynamic determination of fragility in liquids and a fragile-to-strong liquid transition in water
If crystallization can be avoided when a liquid is cooled, it will typically form a glass. Near the glass transition temperature the viscosity increases continuously but rapidly with cooling. As the
Dynamics and thermodynamics of polymer glasses.
  • D. Cangialosi
  • Physics, Medicine
    Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal
  • 2014
In this review, the peculiarities of the thermodynamics and dynamics of glass-forming polymers are discussed, with particular emphasis on those topics currently the subject of debate.
High pressure effects on liquid viscosity and glass transition behaviour, polyamorphic phase transitions and structural properties of glasses and liquids
Since the pioneering work of Bridgman it has been known that pressure affects the glass transition of polymers and liquid state viscosities. Usually the Tg and viscosity both increase as a function
Densified network glasses and liquids with thermodynamically reversible and structurally adaptive behaviour.
The results substantiate the notion of stress-free (Maxwell isostatic) rigidity in disordered molecular systems, while also revealing new implications for the topological engineering of complex materials.
Revealing the role of molecular rigidity on the fragility evolution of glass-forming liquids
Molecular dynamics simulations of a typical network-forming glass, Ge–Se, are reported and it is found that the relaxation behaviour of the supercooled liquid is strongly correlated to the variation of rigidity with temperature and the spatial distribution of the corresponding topological constraints, which ultimately connect to the fragility minima.
The descent into glass formation in polymer fluids.
  • K. Freed
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Accounts of chemical research
  • 2011
The theory describes the change in thermodynamic properties and fragility of polymer glasses with variations in the monomer structure, the rigidity of the backbone and side groups, the cohesive energy, and so forth.
Formation of two glass phases in binary Cu-Ag liquid
Abstract The glass transition is alternatively described as either a dynamic transition in which there is a dramatic slowing down of the kinetics, or as a thermodynamic phase transition. To examine
Supercooled liquids and the glass transition
Current theoretical knowledge of the manner in which intermolecular forces give rise to complex behaviour in supercooled liquids and glasses is discussed.
Local dynamics and deformation of glass-forming polymers : modelling and atomistic simulations
The research described in the present thesis is about glassy phenomena and mechanical properties in vitrifiable polymer materials. Glasses are solid materials, but, in contrast to crystals, the
Glass transition of polymers in bulk, confined geometries, and near interfaces.
This review introduces the reader to experimental methodologies, theories, and simulations of glassy polymer dynamics and vitrification, and focuses discussion specifically on local order, free volume, irreversible chain adsorption, the Debye-Waller factor of confined and confining media, chain rigidity, and the absolute value of the vitrification temperature.


Relaxation in liquids, polymers and plastic crystals — strong/fragile patterns and problems☆
Abstract An overview of relaxational phenomenology is given in a manner intended to highlight a number of the important problems which, notwithstanding much recent sophisticated investigation,
Molecular dynamics studies of glass formation in the Lennard-Jones model of argon
Using the method of molecular dynamics it is shown that glasses can be formed from a 216 particle sample of the Lennard-Jones (LJ) liquid either by isobaric cooling or by isothermal compression. The
Molecular relaxations in a glass of cholesteric liquid crystal
Glasses, in which the orientations of molecules have a long-range order, can be obtained by supercooling the mesophases of liquid crystals. Such mesophases may be: (1) nematic, when the centres of
Molecular dynamics studies of the vitreous state: Simple ionic systems and silica
Some applications of molecular dynamics calculations to the vitreous state have been examined for simple ionic MX and MX2 type glasses. The MX system which corresponds to a hypothetical vitreous and
Nonexponential relaxations in strong and fragile glass formers
Deviations from thermally activated and from exponential response are typical features of the vitrification phenomenon and previously have been studied using viscoelastic, dielectric, calorimetric,
Under what conditions can a glass be formed
Summary Generally substances are more stable in a crystalline than in a glassy state. Therefore, to form a glass, crystallization must be bypassed. Under certain conditions, the melts of many
Glass‐Forming Composition Regions and Glass Transition Temperatures for Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions
As a first stage in a study of the low‐temperature‐region behavior of aqueous solutions, the composition regions of a large number of binary salt‐water systems in which macroscopic samples can be
Oxide Glasses in Light of the “Ideal Glass” Concept: I, Ideal and Nonideal Transitions, and Departures from Ideality*
This two-part paper develops a basis for discussing glass properties which has features in common with standard “actual vs. ideal” treatments of physicochemical behavior, by defining
On the Temperature Dependence of Cooperative Relaxation Properties in Glass‐Forming Liquids
A molecular‐kinetic theory, which explains the temperature dependence of relaxation behavior in glass‐forming liquids in terms of the temperature variation of the size of the cooperatively
The glass transition, a t which a viscous liquid settles into the glassy or structurally arrested state, in some respects appears to be a very obvious process, while in other respects it is both