- Published 2003 in SIAM J. Math. Analysis

The phenomena of concentration and cavitation and the formation of δ-shocks and vacuum states in solutions to the Euler equations for isentropic fluids are identified and analyzed as the pressure vanishes. It is shown that, as the pressure vanishes, any two-shock Riemann solution to the Euler equations for isentropic fluids tends to a δ-shock solution to the Euler equations for pressureless fluids, and the intermediate density between the two shocks tends to a weighted δmeasure that forms the δ-shock. By contrast, any two-rarefaction-wave Riemann solution of the Euler equations for isentropic fluids is shown to tend to a two-contact-discontinuity solution to the Euler equations for pressureless fluids, whose intermediate state between the two contact discontinuities is a vacuum state, even when the initial data stays away from the vacuum. Some numerical results exhibiting the formation process of δ-shocks are also presented.

@article{Chen2003FormationO,
title={Formation of δ-Shocks and Vacuum States in the Vanishing Pressure Limit of Solutions to the Euler Equations for Isentropic Fluids},
author={Gui-Qiang G. Chen and Hailiang Liu},
journal={SIAM J. Math. Analysis},
year={2003},
volume={34},
pages={925-938}
}