Formation and Merging of Mass Gap Black Holes in Gravitational-wave Merger Events from Wide Hierarchical Quadruple Systems

  title={Formation and Merging of Mass Gap Black Holes in Gravitational-wave Merger Events from Wide Hierarchical Quadruple Systems},
  author={Mohammadtaher Safarzadeh and Adrian S. Hamers and Abraham Loeb and Edo Berger},
  journal={arXiv: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena},
We investigate secular evolution in hierarchical quadruple systems as a formation channel of mass-gap black holes (with masses of about $3-5$ $M_{\odot}$) in systems that will eventually lead to binary black hole mergers detectable by ground-based gravitational wave detectors (LIGO/Virgo). We show that in a 3+1 hierarchical system, two episodes of induced mergers would first cause two neutron stars to merge and form a mass-gap black hole, which will subsequently merge with another (more massive… Expand

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