Formation, structure, and function of extra‐skeletal bones in mammals

  title={Formation, structure, and function of extra‐skeletal bones in mammals},
  author={Alireza Nasoori},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  • A. Nasoori
  • Published 27 April 2020
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Biological Reviews
This review describes the formation, structure, and function of bony compartments in antlers, horns, ossicones, osteoderm and the os penis/os clitoris (collectively referred to herein as AHOOO structures) in extant mammals. AHOOOs are extra‐skeletal bones that originate from subcutaneous (dermal) tissues in a wide variety of mammals, and this review elaborates on the co‐development of the bone and skin in these structures. During foetal stages, primordial cells for the bony compartments arise… 
3 Citations
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Understanding of bare mineralized structures, such as tusks and antlers, and their compatibility with different environments, can provide important insight into oral biology.
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