Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks

  title={Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks},
  author={Nick Szabo},
  journal={First Monday},
  • Nick Szabo
  • Published 1 September 1997
  • Computer Science
  • First Monday
Smart contracts combine protocols with user interfaces to formalize and secure relationships over computer networks. Objectives and principles for the design of these systems are derived from legal principles, economic theory, and theories of reliable and secure protocols. Similarities and differences between smart contracts and traditional business procedures based on written contracts, controls, and static forms are discussed. By using cryptographic and other security mechanisms, we can… 

SoK: Development of Secure Smart Contracts - Lessons from a Graduate Course

This work focuses on smart contracts, which are programs on top of blockchains and cryptocurrencies that allow parties to exchange valuable assets without mutual trust, with smart contracts controlling the interaction between the parties.

Financial Cryptography and Data Security

Focussing on the two most widespread platforms, Bitcoin and Ethereum, the usage of smart contracts in relation to their application domain is quantified and the most common programming patterns in Ethereum are analysed.

Privacy Breaches in Smart Contract due to Solidity Language and its Protection

This study observed the privacy leakage of public smart contracts and introduced the technique for privacy-preserving smart contracts, which includes encrypted user output values and defines holders of private values to prevent unintentional data leakage.

A Survey of Attacks on Ethereum Smart Contracts (SoK)

This work analyses the security vulnerabilities of Ethereum smart contracts, providing a taxonomy of common programming pitfalls which may lead to vulnerabilities, and shows a series of attacks which exploit these vulnerabilities, allowing an adversary to steal money or cause other damage.

KACHINA – Foundations of Private Smart Contracts

This work provides a unified security model for private smart contracts which is based on the Universal Composition (UC) model and proposes a novel core protocol, KACHINA, for deploying privacy-preserving smart contracts, which encompasses previous systems.

Smart Contracts for Machine-to-Machine Communication: Possibilities and Limitations

It is found that using smart contracts allows us to directly address the challenges of transparency, longevity, and trust in IoT applications by designing, implementing, and evaluating AGasP, an application for automated gasoline purchases.

Building Executable Secure Design Models for Smart Contracts with Formal Methods

This paper demonstrates a systematic approach to building secure design models for smart contracts using formal methods and illustrates executable secure model design patterns in TLA+ (Temporal Logic of Actions) to against well-known smart contract vulnerabilities in terms of state machines and obligations and rights at the design level.

Scalable, Secure and Broad-Spectrum Enforcement of Contracts, Without Blockchains

This paper introduces a scalable and secure contract-enforcement mechanism, called Cop, which can be applied to a broad range of multi-agent systems including small and large systems, time-critical

How Do Smart Contracts Benefit Security Protocols?

This paper investigates state of the art studies and establishes a formalized model of smart contract protocols with well-defined syntax and assumptions and abstracts three generic properties and identifies two patterns: (1) a smart contract can be as an autonomous subscriber to assist the trusted third party (TTP); (2) aSmart contract can replace traditional TTP.

Secure Smart Contract System Built on SMPC Over Blockchain

  • Yan ZhuXiaoxu SongShuai YangYao QinQiong Zhou
  • Computer Science
    2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData)
  • 2018
A SMPC-based smart contract platform with three-layer structure: contract, computing, and group communication layer, which gives the implementation process, language structure and grammar specification of smart contracts.



The Uses and Limits of Financial Cryptography: A Law Professor's Perspective

There is considerable support in the cryptography community for the “Cypherpunk Credo,” defined as: “Privacy through technology, not legislation.“ Much discussion to date has assumed that the U.S.

[서평]「Applied Cryptography」

The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to applied cryptography with an engineer or computer scientist in mind. The emphasis is on the knowledge needed to create practical

From Edi to Electronic Commerce: A Business Initiative

From the Publisher: A revision of EDI: The Competitive Edge,this book focuses on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) as the first step of the internal re-engineering of business processes to

Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy

Polanyi is at pains to expunge what he believes to be the false notion contained in the contemporary view of science which treats it as an object and basically impersonal discipline.

The future of the law

Anonymous Credit" posts

  • 1997

Trust in Electronic Markets," First Monday, Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Publ...

  • PM Volume 2,
  • 1996

Enabling Anonymous Publishing on the World Wide Web

  • 1997