# Formal methods: state of the art and future directions

@article{Clarke1996FormalMS, title={Formal methods: state of the art and future directions}, author={Edmund M. Clarke and Jeannette M. Wing}, journal={ACM Comput. Surv.}, year={1996}, volume={28}, pages={626-643} }

Hardware and software systems will inevitably grow in scale and functionality. Because of this increase in complexity, the likelihood of subtle errors is much greater. Moreover, some of these errors may cause catastrophic loss of money, time, or even human life. A major goal of software engineering is to enable developers to construct systems that operate reliably despite this complexity. One way of achieving this goal is by using formal methods, which are mathematically based languagesâ€¦Â

## 1,546 Citations

### A Progressive Methodology for the Verification of a DSP Chip

- Computer Science
- 2001

A methodology for the formal verification using theorem proving of a DSP processor chip is described and a new progressive methodology based on the particular characteristics of the architecture of the processor and the strength of the HOL theorem prover is defined.

### Model checking Circus

- Computer Science
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An operational semantics for model checking Circus is provided, which enables the representation of Circus programs as automata, as well as a search algorithm enabling us to establish refinement between two programs, in order to provide tool support for Circus.

### Formal methods and automation for system verification

- Computer Science2011 Fourth International Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Applied Optimization
- 2011

This paper introduces and shows how some of those formal methods, Propositional Logic (PL) and First Order Logic (FOL), can be used in specifying and verifying the correctness of related system aspects.

### The application of correctness preserving transformations to software maintenance

- Computer ScienceProceedings 2000 International Conference on Software Maintenance
- 2000

The authors apply a theoretical tool, the correctness preserving transformation (CPT), to a real software engineering problem: the need for optimization during the maintenance of code and shows that CPTs can facilitate generation of more efficient code while guaranteeing the preservation of original behavior.

### THEOREM PROVING TECHNIQUES FOR FORMAL SYSTEMVERIFICATION

- Computer Science
- 2012

This paper introduces and shows how some of those formal methods techniques, Propositional Logic and First Order Logic, can be used in specifying and verifying the correctness of some properties related to such systems.

### Formal symbolic verification using heuristic search and abstraction techniques

- Computer Science
- 2006

This thesis investigates non-exhaustive model checking algorithms and focuses on error detection in system verification using a novel integration of symbolic model checking, heuristic search and abstraction techniques to produce a framework that is called abstractiondirected model checking.

### FLAVERS: A finite state verification technique for software systems

- Computer ScienceIBM Syst. J.
- 2002

An FSV approach that creates a compact and conservative, but imprecise, model of the system being analyzed, and then assists the analyst in adding additional details as guided by previous analysis results is described and some experimental results demonstrating scalability are provided.

### Formal Verification of Generalised State Machines

- Computer Science2008 Panhellenic Conference on Informatics
- 2008

This paper describes how a new logic, namely XmCTL, which extends temporal logic with memory quantifiers, facilitates model checking of X-machine models and is demonstrated through the verification of a steam-boiler system.

### AUTOMATED REASONING TECHNIQUES FOR SYSTEM CORRECTNESS VERIFICATION

- Computer Science
- 2012

This paper shows how some of those automated reasoning techniques and formal proving methods, using Propositional Logic and First Order Logic, can be used in specifying and verifying the correctness of some properties related to such systems.

### Formal specification and verification of safety interlock systems: A comparative case study

- Computer Science
- 2007

The design of mathematical models as a basis for the implementation of error-free software for the safety interlock system at iThemba LABS and the comparison of formal method techniques that addresses the lack of much-needed empirical studies in the field of formal methods are addressed.

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