Formal methods: state of the art and future directions

@article{Clarke1996FormalMS,
  title={Formal methods: state of the art and future directions},
  author={Edmund M. Clarke and Jeannette M. Wing},
  journal={ACM Comput. Surv.},
  year={1996},
  volume={28},
  pages={626-643}
}
Hardware and software systems will inevitably grow in scale and functionality. Because of this increase in complexity, the likelihood of subtle errors is much greater. Moreover, some of these errors may cause catastrophic loss of money, time, or even human life. A major goal of software engineering is to enable developers to construct systems that operate reliably despite this complexity. One way of achieving this goal is by using formal methods, which are mathematically based languages… 

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