Formal Tree Series

  title={Formal Tree Series},
  author={Zolt{\'a}n {\'E}sik and Werner Kuich},
  journal={Journal of Automata, Languages and Combinatorics},
In this survey we generalize some results on formal tree languages, tree grammars and tree automata by an algebraic treatment using semirings, fixed point theory, formal tree series and matrices. The use of these mathematical constructs makes definitions, constructions, and proofs more satisfactory from an mathematical point of view than the customary ones. The contents of this survey paper is indicated by the titles of the sections: