Forgiving Usually Takes Time: A Lesson Learned by Studying Interventions to Promote Forgiveness

  title={Forgiving Usually Takes Time: A Lesson Learned by Studying Interventions to Promote Forgiveness},
  author={Everett L. Worthington and Taro A. Kurusu and Wanda R. Collins and John W. Berry and Jennifer S. Ripley and Sasha N. Baier},
  journal={Journal of Psychology and Theology},
  pages={20 - 3}
Numerous accounts of research on promoting forgiveness in group settings have been published, indicating that forgiveness can be promoted successfully in varying degrees. Many have suggested that empathy-based interventions are often successful. It takes time to develop empathy for an offender. We report three studies of very brief attempts to promote forgiveness in psychoeducational group settings. The studies use ten-minute, one-hour, two-hour, and 130–minute interventions with college… 
Creating and Disseminating Positive Psychology Interventions That Endure: Lessons from the Past, Gazing Toward the Future
  • E. Worthington
  • Psychology
    Theoretical Approaches to Multi-Cultural Positive Psychological Interventions
  • 2019
This chapter reviews the history of development of several positive psychology interventions. I use forgiveness interventions, and specifically the REACH Forgiveness intervention, as a case study.
Comparison of Two Group Interventions to Promote Forgiveness: Empathy as a Mediator of Change
Undergraduate student volunteers (N=97) were randomly assigned to one of two six-hour forgiveness psychoeducational seminars or to a wait-list control group. Based on attachment theory, forgiveness
Interpersonal Forgiveness: Longitudinal Analyses
Most of the existing research on forgiveness so far has devoted considerable attention to the cross-sectional examination of forgiveness. The few existing longitudinal studies have primarily focused
Gender role orientation and the role of empathy in interventions promoting the development of interpersonal forgiveness.
Research over the past quarter-century has revealed a host of benefits associated with forgiving someone for a past hurt, such as reductions in anxiety and depression and increased satisfaction with
A Psychoeducational Intervention to Promote Forgiveness in Christians in the Philippines
Psychoeducational group interventions to promote forgiveness have been studied mainly with college students who are struggling to forgive. Mental health counselors must tailor interventions to
Efficacy of REACH Forgiveness across cultures.
The REACH Forgiveness intervention was efficacious for college students from different cultural backgrounds when conducted in the United States, however, some evidence may warrant development of culturally adapted forgiveness interventions.
The road to forgiveness: a meta-analytic synthesis of its situational and dispositional correlates.
S situational constructs are shown to account for greater variance in forgiveness than victim dispositions, although within-category differences are considerable, and preliminary evidence suggests that methodology may exhibit some moderating effects.
Transgressions, profound or trifling, occur frequently in our lives. Research suggests that forgiving has important benefits. I examined the effects of empathy, purportedly the only manipulation
Exploring forgiveness of self and others using integrative methodologies
Forgiveness issues relate to the forgiveness triad, and the themes to emerge are, intimate relationships, domination, pseudo-forgiveness, the value of forgiveness, process of forgive, remorse, instantaneous forgiveness, attitude towards the aggressor, unforgivable, family as forgivers/blood is thicker than water, desire for forgiveness from their children.
In Search of a Common Core: A Content Analysis of Interventions to Promote Forgiveness.
This article reviews published methods for promoting forgiveness for a broad range of clinical issues. The review revealed a consensus among applied researchers regarding several broad types of


Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships.
Evidence is found consistent with the hypotheses that the relationship between receiving an apology from and forgiving one's offender is a function of increased empathy for the offender and that forgiving is uniquely related to conciliatory behavior and avoidance behavior toward the offending partner.
An empathy‐humility‐commitment model of forgiveness applied within family dyads
Forgiveness is described as requiring empathy for the offender, the humility to see oneself as being as fallible and needy as the offender, and courage to commit publicly to forgive. Research
Encouraging Clients to Forgive People who have Hurt Them: Review, Critique, and Research Prospectus
The literature addressing forgiving and its use as a counseling technique is reviewed. Forgiving is hypothesized to yield cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal benefits to individuals who forgive
Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement.
The development of the transgression-related interpersonal motivations inventory is described--a self-report measure designed to assess the 2-component motivational system (Avoidance and Revenge) posited to underlie forgiving, which demonstrated a variety of desirable psychometric properties.
Promoting Forgiveness: A Comparison of Two Brief Psychoeducational Group Interventions With a Waiting‐List Control
The authors studied the effects of 2 brief psychoeducational group interventions on participants' forgiveness for an offender and compared them with a waiting-list control. The Self-Enhancement group
Forgiveness as an intervention goal with incest survivors.
An intervention, with forgiveness toward their abuser as the goal, was implemented with 12 female incest survivors, and the experimental group gained more than the control group in forgiveness and hope and decreased significantly more in anxiety and depression.
The role of dispositional empathy and social evaluation in the empathic mediation of helping.
University of Texas at Austin Coke, Batson, and McDavis have proposed a two-stage model of empathy-mediated helping, based on emotional arousal and perspective taking. We hypothesized that in
Forgiveness intervention with postabortion men.
An intervention designed to foster forgiveness was implemented with postabortion men, which demonstrated a significant gain in forgiveness and significant reductions in anxiety, anger, and grief as compared with controls.
Gender in the context of supportive and challenging religious counseling interventions.
This study explored an interactive framework for understanding how gender influences the counseling process in religious counseling. Participants (N = 314) viewed 1 of 16 videotapes in which either a
The development of a forgiveness scale.
This paper reports on the development, validity, and reliability of a self-report instrument designed to assess a respondent's perspective of pain resulting from relational violations and work toward