Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: theory, review, and hypotheses

  title={Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: theory, review, and hypotheses},
  author={Everett L. Worthington and Michael Scherer},
  journal={Psychology \& Health},
  pages={385 - 405}
Experimental evidence suggests that when people are transgressed against interpersonally, they often react by experiencing unforgiveness. Unforgiveness is conceptualized as a stress reaction. Forgiveness is one (of many) ways people reduce unforgiveness. Forgiveness is conceptualized as an emotional juxtaposition of positive emotions (i.e., empathy, sympathy, compassion, or love) against the negative emotions of unforgiveness. Forgiveness can thus be used as an emotion-focused coping strategy… 
Indirect Effects of Forgiveness on Psychological Health Through Anger and Hope: A Parallel Mediation Analysis
Forgiveness often discussed as a religious idea is also a popular topic in psychology. Empirical studies have shown that forgiveness decreases anger, anxiety, and depression and increases self-esteem
A Review on How an Ancient Forgiveness Way Called Ho’oponopono Can Boost Human Health and Immune System
In response to painful emotions, individuals may react with anger, hostility, and the desire for revenge. Experimental evidence suggests that when people are transgressed against interpersonally,
Intrapersonal and interpersonal facilitators of forgiveness following spousal infidelity: A stress and coping perspective.
The findings provide evidence for the differentiated decisional and emotional forgiveness processes after spousal infidelity and delineate different coping mechanism that triggers them, thus lending culturally appropriate evidence for clinicians who work with clients facing spousAL infidelity.
A Conceptual Model of Forgiveness and Health
In the present chapter, we review the adverse effects of unforgiveness on physical health and develop an integrative conceptual model involving precursors as well as mechanisms that may function as a
Forgiveness, Health, and Well-Being: A Review of Evidence for Emotional Versus Decisional Forgiveness, Dispositional Forgivingness, and Reduced Unforgiveness
The extant data linking forgiveness to health and well-being point to the role of emotional forgiveness, particularly when it becomes a pattern in dispositional forgivingness, and a research agenda is proposed.
Roles of Anger and Rumination in the Relationship Between Self-Compassion and Forgiveness
Self-compassion can improve mental health and enable individuals to develop aspects of prosocial motivation such as forgiveness. Self-compassion is associated with forgiveness; however, cognitive and
Forgiveness and the appraisal-coping process in response to relationship conflicts: Implications for depressive symptoms
It is suggested that the relation between forgiveness and diminished distress operates primarily by guiding individuals' appraisals of the conflict and by diminishing the reliance on emotion-focused coping.
Forgiveness as a Coping Strategy to Allow School Students to Deal With the Effects of Being Bullied: Theoretical and Empirical Discussion
In recent decades, school bullying has come to be recognized as a serious problem for students across the world. A substantial body of research has demonstrated that school bullying leads to
Self ‐ Forgiveness : The Predictive Role of Cognitive Distortions
Article History: Purpose: People encounter many hurtful experiences in daily life. Hurtful experiences lead to negative emotions such as anger, revenge, shame, and guilt, and people need to overcome


Granting Forgiveness or Harboring Grudges: Implications for Emotion, Physiology, and Health
This study examined the immediate emotional and physiological effects that occurred when participants rehearsed hurtful memories and nursed grudges compared with when they cultivated empathic perspective taking and imagined granting forgiveness (i.e., were forgiving) toward real-life offenders.
Dealing with betrayal in close relationships: does commitment promote forgiveness?
It is suggested that victims' self-oriented reactions to betrayal are antithetical to forgiveness, favoring impulses such as grudge and vengeance, and forgiveness rests on prorelationship motivation, one cause of which is strong commitment.
Forgiveness in marriage: The role of relationship quality, attributions, and empathy
Italian husbands (n = 79) and wives (n = 92) from long-term marriages provided data on the role of marital quality, affective reactions, and attributions for hypothetical partner transgressions in
Coping with stress : effective people and processes
This is a companion volume to Coping: The Psychology of What Works, which is also edited by Snyder. This second book includes chapters by some of the most well known clinical and health psychologists
Religion and the forgiving personality.
The links between forgiveness and religion are explored by surveying how they are linked in the major monotheistic world religions, and how they appear to be linked empirically.
Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement.
The development of the transgression-related interpersonal motivations inventory is described--a self-report measure designed to assess the 2-component motivational system (Avoidance and Revenge) posited to underlie forgiving, which demonstrated a variety of desirable psychometric properties.
A Change of Heart: Cardiovascular Correlates of Forgiveness in Response to Interpersonal Conflict
Forgiveness may produce beneficial effects directly by reducing allostatic load associated with betrayal and conflict, and indirectly through reductions in perceived stress, as well as stress, hostility, empathy, and self-reported illness symptoms.
Stress: Appraisal and Coping
Here is a monumental work that continues in the tradition pioneered by co-author Richard Lazarus in his classic book Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. Dr. Lazarus and his collaborator, Dr.
Relation of shame and guilt to constructive versus destructive responses to anger across the lifespan.
This study explored the relation of shame proneness and guilt proneness to constructive versus destructive responses to anger among 302 children (Grades 4-6), adolescents (Grades 7-11), 176 college
Forgiveness and Health: Age Differences in a U.S. Probability Sample
Forgiveness is a variable closely related to religiousness and spirituality that has been hypothesized to be protective of mental and physical health. However, we do not clearly understand which