Forests as Complex Adaptive Systems : Implications for Forest Management and Modelling

  title={Forests as Complex Adaptive Systems : Implications for Forest Management and Modelling},
  • Published 2011
Forest management objectives for private and public forest landowners were mostly well defined until the late 20th century. Until then, global changes were occurring slowly and had a small impact on forest management, especially in the northern hemisphere. Forest management was generally focused on a single dominant objective, most commonly timber or revenue production in a sustainable manner. Even notable exceptions to the prominence of timber production as the primary goal had a clear defined… CONTINUE READING


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