Force variability during isometric wrist flexion in highly skilled and sedentary individuals


The association of expertness in specific motor activities with a higher ability to sustain a constant application of force, regardless of muscle length, has been hypothesized. Ten highly skilled (HS group) young tennis and handball athletes and 10 sedentary (S group) individuals performed maximal and submaximal (5, 10, 20, 50, and 75% of the MVC) isometric wrist flexions on an isokinetic dynamometer (Kin-Com, Chattanooga). The wrist joint was fixed at five different angles (230, 210, 180, 150, and 1300). For each position the percentages of the maximal isometric force were calculated and participants were asked to maintain the respective force level for 5 s. Electromyographic (EMG) activation of the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris and Extensor Digitorum muscles was recorded using bipolar surface electrodes. No significant differences were observed in maximal isometric strength between HS and S groups. Participants of HS group showed significantly (P < 0.05) smaller force coefficient of variability (CV) and SD values at all submaximal levels of MVC at all wrist angles. The CV and SD values remained unaltered regardless of wrist angle. No difference in normalized agonist and antagonist EMG activity was observed between the two groups. It is concluded that long-term practice could be associated with decreased isometric force variability independently from muscular length and coactivation of the antagonist muscles.

DOI: 10.1007/s00421-009-1184-5

Extracted Key Phrases

4 Figures and Tables

Citations per Year

Citation Velocity: 5

Averaging 5 citations per year over the last 3 years.

Learn more about how we calculate this metric in our FAQ.

Cite this paper

@article{Salonikidis2009ForceVD, title={Force variability during isometric wrist flexion in highly skilled and sedentary individuals}, author={Konstantinos Salonikidis and Ioannis G. Amiridis and Nikolaos Oxyzoglou and Eduardo Saez Saez de Villareal and Andreas S Zafeiridis and Eleftherios Kellis}, journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology}, year={2009}, volume={107}, pages={715 - 722} }