For drug-induced carcinogenesis, the observations are the hypothesis: Invited editorial for the Mini-Symposium on Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology.


Themultistage theory of carcinogenesis persisted for a long time in the study of drug-induced cancer despite an almost complete absence of supporting evidence. Many distinct mechanistic formulations produce the same incidence patterns as multistage models and can be broadened to capture the known examples of drug-induced cancer occurrence. What we should… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.08.012