Footprints in sand: the response of a granular material to local perturbations.

@article{Geng2001FootprintsIS,
  title={Footprints in sand: the response of a granular material to local perturbations.},
  author={Junfei Geng and D. Howell and Emily Longhi and Robert P Behringer and Guillaume Reydellet and Lo{\"i}c Vanel and Eric Cl{\'e}ment and Stefan Luding},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2001},
  volume={87 3},
  pages={035506}
}
We experimentally determine ensemble-averaged responses of granular packings to point forces, and we compare these results to recent models for force propagation in a granular material. We use 2D granular arrays consisting of photoelastic particles: either disks or pentagons, thus spanning the range from ordered to disordered packings. A key finding is that spatial ordering of the particles is a key factor in the force response. Ordered packings have a propagative component that does not occur… CONTINUE READING
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