Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

@article{Oliver2009FoodSH,
  title={Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.},
  author={Stephen Oliver and Kathryn J. Boor and Steven C Murphy and Shelton E Murinda},
  journal={Foodborne pathogens and disease},
  year={2009},
  volume={6 7},
  pages={
          793-806
        }
}
An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Raw milk consumption and health.

TLDR
In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary, and traditional raw milk products were cited as being used.

Food safety risks and current practices regarding unpasteurized dairy products, juices, and ciders

TLDR
Since pasteurization has become widely used, there has been a dramatic decline in foodborne illness associated with dairy products, but unpasteurized dairy products still pose a significant health risk.

Raw Milk and Implications for Public Health.

of Findings: ● Consumer demand exists for the sale of unpasteurized (i.e. raw) milk, driven by a number of consumer interests including: taste preference, belief about health benefits, desire to

Consumption of Raw or Unpasteurized Milk and Milk Products by Pregnant Women and Children

TLDR
Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections.

Food-Borne Pathogens and Contaminants in Raw Milk – A Review

TLDR
The aim of the present review is to highlight the threats to human health posed by consumption of milk and dairy products, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta lactamase/AmpC gene-carrying bacteria from the family of Enterobacteriaceae.

Examination of the behaviour of bacterial pathogens in raw milk

TLDR
It was observed that the introduced pathogens showed limited growth at a low storage temperature (refrigeration); however, increased growth rates were observed at higher temperatures of 8°C and 15°C, which suggest that consumption of raw milk is potentially hazardous, especially if the milk is subjected to mild and moderate temperature abuse.

Quantitative risk assessment of listeriosis due to consumption of raw milk.

TLDR
A close relationship between prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk and the values of disease incidence was observed, and a reduction in the number of cases per year in all populations was observed when a raw milk-testing program was in place, especially when routine testing and recalling of milk was conducted.

Microbiological Safety Concerns of Raw Milk

Milk is an ideal medium for the growth and multiplication of diverse microorganisms resulting in its early deterioration. Consumption of raw milk should be discouraged as numerous epidemiological
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 51 REFERENCES

Food safety: unpasteurized milk: a continued public health threat.

  • J. LejeuneP. Rajala-Schultz
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2009
TLDR
Understanding the science behind this controversial and highly debated topic will provide public health care workers the information needed to discern fact from fiction and will provide a tool to enhance communication with clients in an effort to reduce the incidence of infections associated with the consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products.

Unpasteurized Milk: A Continued Public Health Threat

Although milk and dairy products are important components of a healthy diet, if consumed unpasteurized, they also can present a health hazard due to possible contamination with pathogenic bacteria.

Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications.

TLDR
Information presented supports the model in which the presence of pathogens depends on ingestion of contaminated feed followed by amplification in bovine hosts and fecal dissemination in the farm environment, and isolation of bacterial pathogens with similar biotypes from dairy farms and from outbreaks of human disease substantiates this hypothesis.

Foods Associated with Food- borne Illness Outbreaks from 1990 through 2003

TLDR
The findings demonstrate the value of routinely linking outbreaks to specific foods and illustrate the importance of using a consistent, common-sense food categorization scheme for all food safety stakeholders.

A survey of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm families in pennsylvania.

TLDR
The findings of the study could assist in developing farm community-based educational programs on the risks of consuming raw milk.

The epidemiology of raw milk-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported in the United States, 1973 through 1992.

TLDR
Consumption of raw milk remains a preventable cause of foodborne disease outbreaks and the legal status of intrastate raw milk sales for the period 1973 through 1995 is determined.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with drinking raw milk--Washington and Oregon, November-December 2005.

TLDR
This report summarizes the investigation of E. coli O157:H7 cases associated with the Cowlitz County farm and reinforces previous warnings about the health hazards of consuming raw milk.

Unpasteurized milk. The hazards of a health fetish.

TLDR
To effectively counsel patients attracted by the health claims made for raw milk, practicing physicians must understand both the rationale used by proponents of raw milk and the magnitude of the risk involved in drinking raw milk.

Molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from bulk tank milk and cull dairy cow fecal samples.

TLDR
The baseline information generated in this survey is being used to develop preharvest pathogen reduction programs on selected farms and to establish the prevalence of Salmonella in cull dairy cow fecal samples and bulk tank milk in east Tennessee.

Incidence and seasonal variation of Listeria species in bulk tank goat's milk.

TLDR
Four hundred and fifty raw goat's milk samples obtained from the bulk tanks of 39 goat farms were analyzed for Listeria over a 1-year period, with trends similar to those previously reported for cow's milk.
...