Food oral processing includes all muscle activities, jaw movements, and tongue movements that contribute to preparing food for swallowing. Simultaneously, during the transformation of food structure to a bolus, a cognitive representation of food texture is formed. These physiological signals detected during oral processing are highly complex and dynamic in nature because food structure changes continuously due to mechanical and biochemical breakdown coupled with the lubricating action of saliva. Multiple and different sensations are perceived at different stages of the process. Although much work has focused on factors that determine mechanical (e.g., rheological and fracture) and sensory properties of foods, far less attention has been paid to linking food transformations that occur during oral processing with sensory perception of texture. Understanding how food structure influences specific patterns of oral processing and how these patterns relate to specific textural properties and their cognitive representations facilitates the design of foods that are nutritious, healthy, and enjoyable.