Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations

  title={Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations},
  author={Stephen P. Long and Elizabeth A. Ainsworth and Andrew D. B. Leakey and Josef Nösberger and Donald R. Ort},
  pages={1918 - 1921}
Model projections suggest that although increased temperature and decreased soil moisture will act to reduce global crop yields by 2050, the direct fertilization effect of rising carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) will offset these losses. The CO2 fertilization factors used in models to project future yields were derived from enclosure studies conducted approximately 20 years ago. Free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) technology has now facilitated large-scale trials of the major grain… 

Direct Effects of Rising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Ozone on Crop Yields

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) in this century will alter crop yield quantity and quality. It is important to understand the magnitude of the expected changes and the

onsidering sink strength to model crop production under elevated atmospheric O 2

Climatic changes and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will affect crop growth and production in the near future. Rising CO2 concentration is a novel environmental aspect that should be

How seasonal temperature or water inputs affect the relative response of C3 crops to elevated [CO2]: a global analysis of open top chamber and free air CO2 enrichment studies

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) has the potential to positively impact C3 food crop production by directly stimulating photosynthetic carbon gain (A), which leads to increased

Decreasing, not increasing, leaf area will raise crop yields under global atmospheric change

This is the first direct proof that a modern crop cultivar produces more leaf than is optimal for yield under today's and future [CO 2] and that reducing leaf area would give higher yields.

An independent method of deriving the carbon dioxide fertilization effect in dry conditions using historical yield data from wet and dry years

Accurate estimates of the fertilization effect that elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] has on crop yields are valuable for estimation of future crop production, yet there is still some controversy over

Rice yield enhancement by elevated CO2 is reduced in cool weather

The projected increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is expected to increase rice yield, but little is known of the effects of [CO2] at low temperature, which is the major constraint to

Quantifying field-scale effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on crops

Climate change will affect crop growth and agricultural production worldwide. Crop production will be affected not only by modified rainfall patterns, increased air temperatures and changes in

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the future of C4 crops for food and fuel

  • A. Leakey
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2009
Additional experiments are needed to evaluate the extent to which amelioration of drought stress by elevated [CO2] will improve C4 crop yields for food and fuel over the range of C 4 crop growing conditions and genotypes.



Global food insecurity. Treatment of major food crops with elevated carbon dioxide or ozone under large-scale fully open-air conditions suggests recent models may have overestimated future yields

Findings suggest that current projections of global food security are overoptimistic, as the fertilization effect of CO2 is less than that used in many models, while rising ozone will cause large yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere.

Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Yield of Maize Are Not Affected by Open-Air Elevation of CO2 Concentration in the Absence of Drought1[OA]

Growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield in the absence of water stress, and suggests that rising CO2 may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply.

Elevated CO2 increases sorghum biomass under drought conditions

Summary •  Atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to increase by 50% near the middle of this century. The effects the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) is presented here on growth and development of

What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2.

The results from this review may provide the most plausible estimates of how plants in their native environments and field-grown crops will respond to rising atmospheric [CO(2)]; but even with FACE there are limitations, which are discussed.

Season-long elevation of ozone concentration to projected 2050 levels under fully open-air conditions substantially decreases the growth and production of soybean.

This is the first study with a food crop (soybean, Glycine max) using free-air gas concentration enrichment (FACE) technology for ozone fumigation, and results validate previous chamber studies suggesting that soybean yields will decrease under increasing ozone exposure.

Grassland Responses to Global Environmental Changes Suppressed by Elevated CO2

Across all multifactor manipulations, elevated carbon dioxide suppressed root allocation, decreasing the positive effects of increased temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition on NPP.

Elevated atmospheric CO2 improved Sorghum plant water status by ameliorating the adverse effects of drought

○ The interactive effects of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and soil-water content on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) are reported here. ○ Sorghum plants were exposed to ambient (control) and