Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies

  title={Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies},
  author={Myra L. Weiner},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  pages={244 - 269}
  • M. Weiner
  • Published 17 February 2014
  • Biology
  • Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Abstract Carrageenan (CGN) is a seaweed-derived high molecular weight (Mw) hydrocolloid, primarily used as a stabilizer and thickener in food. The safety of CGN regarding its use in food is reviewed. Based on experimental studies in animals, ingested CGN is excreted quantitatively in the feces. Studies have shown that CGN is not significantly degraded by low gastric pH or microflora in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to its Mw, structure and its stability when bound to protein, CGN is not… 

Gastrointestinal Tract Digestion and Carrageenan: How Misconceptions have influenced the Understanding of Carrageenan Safety

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Clinical evidence suggests that CGN is involved in the pathogenesis and clinical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), indeed food-exclusion diets can be an effective therapy for disease remission and gaps to be filled are suggested and advise to limit the human exposure to CGN by reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods.

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Food additive carrageenan: Part I: A critical review of carrageenan in vitro studies, potential pitfalls, and implications for human health and safety

  • J. Mckim
  • Biology
    Critical reviews in toxicology
  • 2014
There has not been a comprehensive review of the CGN in vitro literature, which has reported a wide range of biochemical effects related to this compound, so an extensive effort has been made to evaluate as much of this literature as possible.

Short-term peroral toxicity of undegraded carrageenan in pigs.

  • E. Poulsen
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Food and cosmetics toxicology
  • 1973

Intestinal uptake of carrageenan: distribution and effects on humoral immune competence.

Carrageenan is the generic name given to high-molecular-weight( 100,000 daltons) sulphated polygalactans derived from certain species of red algae. Three basic types can be isolated: k, i, and 1.

Review of harmful gastrointestinal effects of carrageenan in animal experiments.

  • J. Tobacman
  • Medicine
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 2001
It is demonstrated that exposure to undegraded as well as to degraded carrageenan was associated with the occurrence of intestinal ulcerations and neoplasms, and the widespread use of carrageENan in the Western diet should be reconsidered.

In-vitro gastric stability of carrageenan

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Effect of orally administered food-grade carrageenans on antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity in the inbred rat.

  • S. NicklinK. Miller
  • Biology, Medicine
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 1984

Faecal excretion of degraded and native carrageenan by the young rat

Hawkins & Yaphe (1965) have shown that when native, undegraded carrageenan is fed to young rats, at levels of 2 to 20% in the diet, it is 90-100% excreted in the faeces. No comparable results appear

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