Following the water, the new program for Mars exploration.

  title={Following the water, the new program for Mars exploration.},
  author={Gertrude Hubbard and Firouz M. Naderi and James B Garvin},
  journal={Acta astronautica},
  volume={51 1-9},
In the wake of the loss of Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in late 1999, NASA embarked on a major review of the failures and subsequently restructured all aspects of what was then called the Mars Surveyor Program--now renamed the Mars Exploration Program. This paper presents the process and results of this reexamination and defines a new approach which we have called "Program System Engineering". Emphasis is given to the scientific, technological, and programmatic strategies that… CONTINUE READING


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