Focus: Human African trypanosomiasis

  title={Focus: Human African trypanosomiasis},
  author={Deborah W Kioy and Jean Jannin and Nina Mattock},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
BACKGROUND Causative agents. Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is caused by single-celled parasites, Trypanosoma brucei, which are transmitted to humans by infected tsetse flies. Two sub-species of T. brucei cause different forms of the disease. T. b. gambiense causes chronic infection, whereas T. b. rhodesiense generally causes a more acute infection. The parasites first develop in the blood, lymph and peripheral organs (stage 1), then spread to the central… 
Prevalence of symbionts and trypanosome infections in tsetse flies of two villages of the “Faro and Déo” division of the Adamawa region of Cameroon
The rate of tsetse fly infection by trypanosomes was low compared to those obtained in HAT foci of south Cameroon, and this rate was not statistically linked to the rate of symbiont occurrence.
Overcoming resistance with designer immunotoxins
  • M. Braddock
  • Biology
    Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • 2006
Treatment with this engineered immunotoxin has resulted in both alleviating and curative effects on chronic and acute infections of mice with normal human serum-resistant and -sensitive trypanosomes.
High Levels of Genetic Differentiation between Ugandan Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations Separated by Lake Kyoga
The lack of a correlation between genetic structuring of G. f.
Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infections in laboratory and natural populations of different species of tsetse flies (genus Glossina)
Wolbachia infections were detected in both laboratory and natural populations of several different Glossina species and the detection of horizontal gene transfer events, in which Wobachia genes were inserted into the tsetse flies fly nuclear genome.
RNA aptamers as potential pharmaceuticals against infections with African trypanosomes.
The recent examples of the SELEX technique within the context of identifying high-affinity RNA ligands against the surface of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which is the causative agent of sleeping sickness are summarized.
Antiprotozoal agents: How have they changed over a decade?
This review covers the last decade in terms of the drugs currently available for the treatment of protozoal diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis, and American trypanOSomiasis as well as the clinical candidates being currently investigated.
Molecular Pharmacology of Adenosine Transport in Trypanosoma brucei: P1/P2 Revisited
It is surprising that the tbat1-/- mutant grows faster than TbAT1+/+ trypanosomes and that it overexpresses genes of the TbNT cluster encoding P1-type transporters, but this unexpected phenotypes show that there are conditions other than drug pressure under which loss of P2 may confer a selective advantage to bloodstream-form trypanOSomes.
Tsetse-Wolbachia symbiosis: comes of age and has great potential for pest and disease control.
Genetic diversity and population structure of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Northern Uganda: Implications for vector control
The microsatellite and mtDNA based analyses indicate that G. f.


Treatment perspectives for human African trypanosomiasis
A pentamidine analog that offers hope for the replacement of injectable pent amine with an orally administered drug is in the clinical development phase and orally administered eflornithine is also slated for reevaluation.
Recent developments in human African trypanosomiasis
This molecular tool has shown that the Rhodesian form of the disease is being carried in cattle northwards in Uganda towards areas endemic for the Gambian form, which will present problems for both control and treatment.
Killing of African trypanosomes by antimicrobial peptides.
Although members of all 3 classes of antimicrobial peptides showed activity, those derived from the cathelicidin class were most effective, killing both insect and bloodstream forms of the parasite.
Stage determination and therapeutic decision in human African trypanosomiasis: value of polymerase chain reaction and immunoglobulin M quantification on the cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients in Côte d'Ivoire
This result confirms those of previous works that showed that some patients with trypanosomes in the CSF could be treated successfully with pentamidine, and may be of use to improve stage determination.
Plant-like traits associated with metabolism of Trypanosoma parasites
Molecular evidence is presented that trypanosomatids possessed a plastid at some point in their evolutionary history and that kinetoplastids and euglenoids acquired plastids by endosymbiosis before their divergence and that the former lineage subsequently lost the organelle but retained numerous genes.
Short communication: Towards saliva‐based screening for sleeping sickness?
Results indicate that trypanosome‐specific antibody detection in saliva is possible and could lead to the development of a simple, non‐invasive, reliable saliva field test for diagnosis of sleeping sickness.
Combination of eflornithine and melarsoprol for melarsoprol‐resistant Gambian trypanosomiasis
  • B. Mpia, J. Pépin
  • Medicine
    Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
  • 2002
Evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of a combination of eflornithine and melarsoprol among relapsing cases of Gambian trypanosomiasis finds them to be safe and effective.