Fluoroscopically guided percutaneous extraction of upper urinary tract calculi.


Recent developments in instrumentation have revolutionized the management of renal and ureteral calculi, so that over 90 per cent of all upper urinary tract calculi can presently be treated by means of percutaneous manipulations. Approximately two thirds of these stones can be extracted under either fluoroscopic or nephroscopic control, with the remainder… (More)


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