Intracellular signaling relies on the orchestrated cooperation of signaling proteins and modules, their intracellular localization, and membrane trafficking. Recently, a repertoire of fluorescence-based techniques, which significantly increases our potential for detailed studies of the involved mechanisms, has been introduced. Microscopic techniques with increased resolution have been combined with improved techniques for detection of signaling proteins. Transfections of fluorescently tagged proteins have allowed in vivo microscopy of their trafficking and interactions with other proteins and intracellular structures. We present an overview of general signaling principles and a description of techniques based on fluorescent microscopy suited for studies of signaling mechanisms.