Flunitrazepam: A Review of its Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use

  title={Flunitrazepam: A Review of its Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use},
  author={M. A. K. Mattila and H. M. Larni},
SummarySynopsis: Flunitrazepam1 is a benzodiazepine derivative whose hypnotic effect predominates over the sedative, anxiolytic, muscle-relaxing and anticonvulsant effects characteristic of benzodiazepines. Thus, it is used as a night-time hypnotic and in anaesthesiology; due to the pronounced hypnotic effect it is not appropriate as a daytime sedative. Asa hypnotic for insomnia its effect is usually characterised by a very fast onset of action and quiet sleep without interruptions. On the… 

Sedative‐Hypnotic Agents That Impact Gamma‐Aminobutyric Acid Receptors: Focus on Flunitrazepam, Gamma‐Hydroxybutyric Acid, Phenibut, and Selank

There are many nonopioid central nervous system depressant substances that share a gamma‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor–related mechanism of action that are used to treat anxiety, seizures, depression, and insomnia but are also used as substances of abuse and used to facilitate sexual assault.

Designer Benzodiazepines: Another Class of New Psychoactive Substances.

This chapter describes the phenomenon of designer benzodiazepines and summarizes the available data on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as well as analytical approaches for their detection.

A comparison of midazolam and flunitrazepam in end-of-life care

Both benzodiazepines improved symptoms in all categories considered, with flunitrazepam appearing to be more effective, and there is a potential concern that patients may feel trapped by midazolam and not be able to communicate this.

Amnesic effects and subjective ratings during repeated dosing of flunitrazepam to healthy volunteers

No tolerance developed for the effect of flunitrazepam on free recall and the subjects' rating of attention and these effects had nearly equal time courses during the treatment period, which may indicate that the amnesic effect of benzodiazepines is at least partially mediated through the effects on attention or general arousal.

Analysis of Flunitrazepam and Its Metabolites in Biological Specimens

Flunitrazepam, 5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro- l-methyl-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, also commonly known as Rohypnol or “roofies,” belongs to a highly potent group of benzodiazepines used

Rave drugs and anesthesiology practice: A pharmacoclinical review

This review attempts to increase awareness among anesthesiologists about the emerging societal menace of rave drugs and their pharmacological characteristics, their effects on various organ systems, and their associated anesthetic interactions.

Modelling Rohypnol [Flunitrazepam] and Alcohol Abuse and Resultant Effects on Hippocampal Histoarchitecture and Biochemicals in Wistar Rats

Rohypnol and alcohol abuse is often reported among young people. Rohypnol is often abused voluntarily to erase memory of indulgence. It is also used in perpetuating crime such as in rape cases when

Designer benzodiazepines versus prescription benzodiazepines: can structural relation predict the next step?

This review would highlight the distinct characteristics of some of the most commonly abused designer benzodiazepine analogies in relation to their original prescription BZD compounds.

Club drugs: review of the ‘rave’ with a note of concern for the Indian scenario

‘Club drugs’ which include Ecstasy, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) have become popular with participants in ‘raves’, because they are perceived to enhance energy,

Pharmacokinetics of flunitrazepam in rats studied by a radioreceptor assay.



Synaptic pharmacology of barbiturates and benzodiazepines

  • W. Haefely
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Agents and Actions
  • 2005
Barbiturates in appropriate doses regularly induce a reversible state of deep unconsciousness with absence of reactions to peripheral, even painful, stimuli, but with preservation of vital cardiovascular and respiratory functions; with benzodiazepines alone, on the contrary, it is virtually meaningless.

Correlation of Plasma Concentrations of Benzodiazepines with Clinical Effects

The use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of insomnia can be roughly divided into two strategies, each with the most appropriate choice of anxiolytic based on the relative pharmacokinetics of the various members of the class.

Reduction of Psychotomimetic Side Effects of Ketalar® (Ketamine) by Rohypnol®(Flunitrazepam) A Randomized, Double‐Blind Trial

On several counts, the combination of ketamine and flunitrazepam was proved to reduce the adverse reactions seen with ketamine alone, and memory of dreams was often unpleasant after ketamines alone.

Flunitrazepam Versus Placebo Premedication for Minor Surgery

Flunitrazepam is a new oral premedicant with prominent sedative and anxiolytic actions and when the drug is given as a sedative on the night before operation, followed by a second dose on the morning of operation, the beneficial effects last for at least 8 hours after the second dose.

Flunitrazepam, a new benzodiazepine compound in general anaesthesia. Clinical and statistical considerations on the first thousand cases.

In most patients there was no need for administration of analgetics during first 24 hours after the operation, and the authors believe that surgical anaesthesia will greatly benefit from this drug.

Clinical studies of induction agents XLIII: Flunitrazepam.

Flunitrazepam was not a very satisfactory drug for the induction of anaesthesia, and recovery was too prolonged for routine use.

Comparison of diazepam and flunitrazepam as adjuncts to general anaesthesia in preventing arousal following surgical stimuli.

The post-anaesthesia interview revealed that flunitrazepam possesses a more specific anterograde amnesic action than diazepam, and the quality of anaesthesia and acceptance of the anaesthesia to the patient was equally good in both groups.

A clinical trial of Ro5-4200 (flunitrazepam) used to supplement spinal anaesthesia in elderly patients.

  • C. Pearce
  • Medicine
    British journal of anaesthesia
  • 1974
The effects of a new benzodiazepine derivative Ro5–4200, on respiration and circulation were studied in 34 elderly male patients undergoing low spinal anaesthesia; local tolerance to the drug was good and recovery was rapid and dependable.

Amnesic Action and Residual Effects of Benzodiazepines Used for Intravenous Sedation

The popularity of intravenous benzodiazepines as a technique for controlling pain and anxiety during dentistry, minor surgery and diagnostic out-patient procedures has resulted largely from their capacity to induce amnesia, which stresses the importance of concomitant use of local anaesthetic techniques with minor sedation.

A controlled long‐term study of flunitrazepam, nitrazepam and placebo, with special regard to withdrawal effects

It was concluded that withdrawal of a hypnotic in chronic users was not facilitated by the use of a placebo, interpreted as due to a strong psychological dependence upon the hypnotics and their lack of pharmacological effects during long‐term treatment.