Effective rates from thermodynamically consistent coarse-graining of models for molecular motors with probe particles.
We consider the application of fluctuation relations to the dynamics of coarse-grained systems, as might arise in a hypothetical experiment in which a system is monitored with a low-resolution measuring apparatus. We analyze a stochastic, Markovian jump process with a specific structure that lends itself naturally to coarse-graining. A perturbative analysis yields a reduced stochastic jump process that approximates the coarse-grained dynamics of the original system. This leads to a non-trivial fluctuation relation that is approximately satisfied by the coarse-grained dynamics. We illustrate our results by computing the large deviations of a particular stochastic jump process. Our results highlight the possibility that observed deviations from fluctuation relations might be due to the presence of unobserved degrees of freedom. Fluctuation relations and coarse-graining 2