Flood Basalts and Hot-Spot Tracks: Plume Heads and Tails

  title={Flood Basalts and Hot-Spot Tracks: Plume Heads and Tails},
  author={Mark A. Richards and Robert A. Duncan and Vincent Courtillot},
  pages={103 - 107}
Continental flood basalt eruptions have resulted in sudden and massive accumulations of basaltic lavas in excess of any contemporary volcanic processes. The largest flood basalt events mark the earliest volcanic activity of many major hot spots, which are thought to result from deep mantle plumes. The relative volumes of melt and eruption rates of flood basalts and hot spots as well as their temporal and spatial relations can be explained by a model of mantle plume initiation: Flood basalts… 
Genesis of flood basalts from eclogite‐bearing mantle plumes
On the basis of the geochemistry of flood basalts, we investigate the hypothesis that the source material for these magmas includes a significant eclogite component derived from ancient subducted
Hotspots, mantle plumes, flood basalts, and true polar wander
Persistent, long-lived, stationary sites of excessive mantle melting are called hotspots. Hotspots leave volcanic trails on lithospheric plates passing across them. The global constellation of fixed
Mantle Plumes and Continental Tectonics
Mantle plumes and plate tectonics, the result of two distinct modes of convection within the Earth, operate largely independently. Although plumes are secondary in terms of heat transport, they have
A Mantle Plume Initiation Model for the Wrangellia Flood Basalt and Other Oceanic Plateaus
Evidence suggests that other large oceanic basalt plateaus were formed as the initial outbursts of the Louisville Ridge, Kerguelen, and Galapagos hot spots, respectively, and may play an important role in the creation and development of both oceanic and continental crust.
Chapter 2 Plumes and Hotspots 2 . 1
  • Geology
  • 2019
The plate tectonic processes adequately explain two principal types of basaltic volcanism on the earth’s surface, the mid-oceanic ridge and island arc volcanism. Apart from these, another important


Magmatism at rift zones: The generation of volcanic continental margins and flood basalts
When continents rift to form new ocean basins, the rifting is sometimes accompanied by massive igneous activity. We show that the production of magmatically active rifted margins and the effusion of
Rapid eruption of the Deccan flood basalts at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary
The accumulation of flood basalts of the Deccan Traps, western India, is one of the most remarkable volcanic provinces on Earth in sheer extent and volume. These rocks are akin in composition and
Plume formation in the D″-layer and the roughness of the core–mantle boundary
Numerical simulations of the formation of thermal plumes in the D″-layer at the base of the Earth's mantle show that plumes are initiated by coalescence of small-scale convective instabilities within
Flood Basalt Volcanism During the Past 250 Million Years
There were 11 distinct episodes of major continental flood basalt volcanism during the past 250 million years, and the initiation dates of the episodes are close to the estimated dates of mass extinctions of marine organisms.
Plate Motions and Deep Mantle Convection
A scheme of deep mantle convection is proposed in which narrow plumes of deep material rise and then spread out radially in the asthenosphere. These vertical plumes spreading outward in the
A Model of Correlated Episodicity in Magnetic-Field Reversals, Climate, and Mass Extinctions
Correlated periodicities of mass extinctions, climate, magnetic-field reversals, and other geological phenomena may best be explained by cycles of activity within the mantle and core. We propose that
Magmatism at rifted continental margins
The intense volcanism and uplift observed on many rifted continental margins, forming basaltic seaward-dipping reflector sequences, is accompanied by the emplacement of a thick igneous section at