Flocks, herds, and schools: a distributed behavioral model

@article{Reynolds1998FlocksHA,
  title={Flocks, herds, and schools: a distributed behavioral model},
  author={Craig W. Reynolds},
  journal={Seminal graphics},
  year={1998}
}
The aggregate motion of a flock of birds, a herd of land animals, or a school of fish is a beautiful and familiar part of the natural world. But this type of complex motion is rarely seen in computer animation. This paper explores an approach based on simulation as an alternative to scripting the paths of each bird individually. The simulated flock is an elaboration of a particle system, with the simulated birds being the particles. The aggregate motion of the simulated flock is created by a… 

Figures from this paper

Emergence in Collective Animal Behavior
Nature has presented us a wide variety of fascinating collective behaviors in animals – birds flying in flocks, fish swim in shoals and wild horses move in herds. A number of models are proposed in
Characteristics of Flocking Behavior Model by Reinforcement Learning Scheme
TLDR
Anti-predator behaviors of agents are examined by a new framework for self-organized flocking of agents by reinforcement learning and the feature of behavior under two learning modes against agents of the same kind and predators is demonstrated.
The Flock
This paper describes The Flock, a group of musical, interactive sound sculptures that exhibit behaviors analogous to the flocking found in natural groups such as birds, schooling fish, or flying
Running head: INDEX OF FLOCKING BEHAVIOR An index for quantifying flocking behavior
TLDR
An index of the aggregation of moving individuals in a flock is developed and an example is provided of how it can be used to quantify the degree to which a group ofmoving individuals actually forms a flock.
Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.
TLDR
This paper presents an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot, which takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects, and presents two decentralized control algorithms based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion.
Modeling flocks with perceptual agents from a dynamicist perspective
TLDR
A simulation framework in which agents are endowed with a sensing device, an oscillator network as controller and actuators to interact with the environment and it is concluded that the metaphor of symbolic information processing should be replaced by that of sensory‐motor coordination in problems of multi‐agent organizations.
Modelling the dynamics of animal groups in motion
TLDR
This work reviews individual-based models of animal groups according to their main objectives to compare modelled results with observational data; to analyse the influence of model parameters on simulated group properties; and to investigate group response to any change in environment, or to divergent behaviour of some of the group members.
Behavioral Animation of Virtual Agents
TLDR
The animation of virtual agents has received great attention during the last two decades and the goal is to create a behavioral system for the virtual agents so that they behave as realistic as possible.
CS-CL: A Flocking Model That Incorporates The Bio-inspired Chorus-Line Effect
TLDR
This paper studies the time it takes for the rest of the agents to follow an abrupt change in direction executed by one of the flock members and finds that the time required for this kind of manoeuvre tracking can indeed be reduced compared with the standard Cucker-Smale model.
Spontaneous flocking in human groups
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES
The chorus-line hypothesis of manoeuvre coordination in avian flocks
TLDR
It is shown by analysis of film of dunlin (Calidris alpina) flocks that a single bird may initiate a manoeuvre which spreads through the flock in a wave, which reaches mean speeds three times higher than would be possible if birds were simply reacting to their immediate neighbours.
Locomotion of jointed figures over complex terrain
This thesis describes a system that allows the creation of arbitrary jointed figures that can be animated traveling over uneven terrain with forbidden zones. Creatures can be easily described that
Computer animation with scripts and actors
TLDR
Ideas from programming styles used in current Artificial Intelligence research inspired the design of ASAS, which is in fact an extension to the Lisp programming environment.
Dynamic graphics using quasi parallelism
TLDR
This paper is a simple means of attaining the appearance of parallelism and the ability to program the graphics in a conceptually parallel fashion without the complexity of a more general parallel mechanism.
Towards an integrated view of 3-D computer animation
TLDR
A three level hierarchy of control modes for animation is proposed: guiding, animator-level, and task-level systems, which are best suited for specifying fine details but unsuited for controlling complex motion.
Turtle geometry : the computer as a medium for exploring mathematics
Turtle Geometry presents an innovative program of mathematical discovery that demonstrates how the effective use of personal computers can profoundly change the nature of a student's contact with
Vehicles, Experiments in Synthetic Psychology
These imaginative thought experiments are the inventions of one of the world's eminent brain researchers. They are "vehicles," a series of hypothetical, self-operating machines that exhibit
Obstacle Avoidance for Kinematically Redundant Manipulators in Dynamically Varying Environments
The vast majority of work to date concerned with obstacle avoidance for manipulators has dealt with task descriptions in the form ofpick-and-place movements. The added flexibil ity in motion control
A blind fish can school.
TLDR
Five individual saithe, Pollachius virens, were able to join schools of 25 normal saithe swimming in an annular tank, while blinded with opaque eye covers, allowing a demonstration of a role of the lateral line organ in schooling.
ACTORS - a model of concurrent computation in distributed systems
  • G. Agha
  • Computer Science
    MIT Press series in artificial intelligence
  • 1985
TLDR
A foundational model of concurrency is developed and issues in the design of parallel systems and why the actor model is suitable for exploiting large-scale parallelism are addressed.
...
1
2
3
4
...