Flightlessness in Steamer-ducks (anatidae: Tachyeres): Its Morphological Bases and Probable Evolution.

@article{Livezey1986FlightlessnessIS,
  title={Flightlessness in Steamer-ducks (anatidae: Tachyeres): Its Morphological Bases and Probable Evolution.},
  author={Bradley C Livezey and Philip S Humphrey},
  journal={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
  year={1986},
  volume={40 3},
  pages={540-558}
}
Flightlessness in Tachyeres is caused by wing-loadings in excess of 2.5 g·cm-2 , which result from the large body size and small wing areas of the flightless species. Reduced wing areas of flightless species are related to absolutely shorter remiges, and to relatively or absolutely shortened wing bones, although these reductions differ among species. Reduced lengths of the ulna, radius, and carpometacarpus are associated most strongly with flightlessness. Pectoral muscles and the associated… CONTINUE READING
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